Positive Symptoms
Nursing Diagnosis
  1.  May occur in any sensory modality auditory being most common. A perceptual experience of something that is not real.

What is a hallucination


What tests and or screening is done to diagnosis schizophrenia

rule out conditions with similar symptoms with a physical exam, screening for alcohol and drugs. The doctor may also order MRI or CT


This type of therapy is effective in reducing social isolation, increasing the sense of cohesiveness, and improving reality testing for patients with schizophrenia, but should be done later in treatment

Group Therapy


This class of medication is the most effective in treating schizophrenia

Atypical Antipsychotics


During this, patients are taught in a group setting and tend to have excellent outcomes.

What are psychoeducational groups


What is discrimination against an identifiable group of people, a place, or a nation?



A patient newly admitted for schizophrenia who has vertical scars along their forearms and inner thighs would require this nursing diagnosis.

Risk for suicide


2. Beliefs that conflict wit reality.  When a person believes a person, group or organization is mistreating or harming them despite contradictory evidence. 

a. What is a delusion


List three things to evaluate in initial exam

- Observing appearance and demeanor 

- Asking about thoughts and moods

- Delusions and hallucinations

- Substance and drug use

- Evaluate potential for violence or suicide

- Ask about family and personal history.


This specific type of individual therapy in proven to be successful at reducing the frequency of bizarre, disturbing and deviant behavior and increasing appropriate behavior.

Behavior Therapy


This is a common side effect of typical medications that is characterized by frightening muscle spasms



By building this with a schizophrenic patient, medication adherence increases by up to 40 percent.

What is report


What are 3 types of stigma?

Public stigma, self stigma, institutional stigma


A patient sits still in a chair with eyes down every day. The patient does not make eye contact and has difficulty expressing needs verbally. When people come near him, he appears agitated when too many people are close by or stand too close to him. An appropriate nursing diagnosis would be.

Social isolation


3. This refers to reduced or lack of ability to function normally.  For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion (doesn’t make eye contact, doesn’t change facial expressions or speaks in a monotone). Also, the person may lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience pleasure. 

     a. What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia


This proactive and comprehensive treatment teaches basic life skills, helps clients work with community agencies, and assists clients in developing a social support network. Vocational expectations and supported work settings are an important part of this treatment program.

Assertive Community Treatment


This is a common side effect of atypical & typical medications that is characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and an inability to sit still.



There is little to no evidence to support a particular education method as the best way to improve a schizophrenic patients’ quality of life or improve functional ability. Therefore, this may be a suitable alternative for some patients.

What is computer-based patient education


What are some negative effect on stigma?

  • reduced hope
  • lower self-esteem
  • increased psychiatric symptoms
  • difficulties with social relationships
  • reduced likelihood of staying with treatment
  • more difficulties at work

A schizophrenic patient refuses to take his medications saying that they are poison and that there is nothing wrong with him. He refuses to eat or drink anything given to him by staff because it is all poison. An appropriate nursing diagnosis for him would be.

Disturbed thought process


Feelings or behaviors that are usually not present, such as : believing that what other people are say is not true(delusions) hearing, seeing, tasting, feeling, or smelling things that others do not experience (hallucinations) disorganized speech and behavior, movement disorders

What are positive symptoms of schizophrenia


This treatment approach focuses on early intervention at the first episode of psychosis and a personal treatment plan is made immediately after.

R.A.I.S.E-Recovery After Initial Schizophrenic Episode


 This medication is a last resort treatment of schizophrenia



By educating the family as well as the patient, these have shown to be greatly increased.

What is medication adherence, patient outcomes, and more effective coping


Where is stigma come from?

Stigma often comes from lack of understanding or fear


An appropriate nursing diagnosis for a patient on the unit that is rocking in place, eyes are darting around the room, mumbling to himself, and occasionally pausing and tilting his head would be.

Disturbed sensory perception


5. Can vary from being childlike and silly to aggressive and violent. This type of symptom can also involve excessive movements, unusual actions, freezing in place or not responding to instructions or communication.  There may also be unprovoked agitation or sexual behavior in public.

a. What is a disorganized or catatonic behavior


With this type of treatment simple behaviors such as facial expressions, eye contact, voice affect, verbal content and interactive balance are developed and integrated into complex social skills

Social skills Training


Atypical medications block these receptors

D2 and 5HT2A Serotonin Receptor


When teaching a schizophrenic patient about their disease and treatment, this phenomenon causes improved compliance with the medication regimen, lower relapse rate, longer participation in aftercare programs, improved social functioning and quality of life, decreased negative symptoms, improved insight into illness, improved skills acquisition, improved attitudes toward medication intake, and better understanding of mental illness.

What is Placebo


What are some ways to reduce stigma?

Talk openly, educate yourself and others, be conscious of language


A nurse is caring for an 18-year-old college student newly diagnosed with schizophrenia. He has stopped attending class, speaking, or getting out of bed. His parents are talking to the nurse and say, “I don’t know why he can’t snap out of it. We already pay tuition; this is so selfish.” Any appropriate nursing diagnosis would be.

Interrupted family process

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