Preventive Medicine
Perioperative Care

Barrett's Esophagus most commonly leads to this type of cancer

What is adenocarcinoma?


This is a useful screening tool to assess for alcohol abuse. It includes asking a patient if they have ever thought about decreasing EtOH intake or if they have a drink first thing in the morning to "steady their nerves"

What is the CAGE questionnaire?

Cut back

Annoyed with criticism of EtOH use

Guilty about drinking

Eye opener


According to the United States Preventive Services Task Force, it is necessary to periodically review and counsel patients regarding tobacco, alcohol/substance abuse, physical activity level, obesity, and this

What are firearms?

"Firearm-related injuries and deaths are a major public health problem. The physician's ethical role is to counsel patients about firearm safety and to become involved in community efforts to prevent firearm injuries. Some states have passed specific laws prohibiting physicians from inquiring about ownership of firearms"


This is a commonly used screening tool to determine the need for cardiac evaluation prior to surgery

What is the RCRI? or revised cardiac risk index


Tests with high _____ help rule out disease due to their low false negative rate

What is sensitivity?


This is the most common cause of non cardiac chest pain

What is GERD? (70%)

This disorder is characterized by falsification of medical or psychological signs and symptoms in oneself for the principal purpose of assuming the sick role

What is factitious disorder? Also accept Munchausen syndrome


First line medications for smoking cessation include nicotine replacement products, Bupropion SR, and varenicline (Chantix) which has this mechanism of action

What is partial agonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors?


To determine the functional capacity of a patient, you should ask about what sort of tasks they are able to complete on a day to day basis. Their level of activity can be measured using this

What are METs (metabolic equivalents)


This is the probability of not having a disease if the test is negative

What is negative predictive value?



Typically affecting males 20 - 40 years of age and having a strong associate with allergies, this disease causes recurrent dysphagia with food impaction. Classic EGD findings include a scalloped appearance with ridges or "trachealization" of the esophagus

What is eosinophilic esophagitis?


Lithium, a common treatment fo bipolar disorder, can have its levels increased by NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors, and this class of diuretics

What are thiazide diuretics?


One time AAA screening is recommended in men with a history of smoking at age 65-75 or in men at this age if they had a sibling or parent with AAA.

What is age >60?

This class of medication should be continued on the day of surgery as they can improve post op outcomes. Groups that benefit include vascular surgery patients with positive pre op stress tests, patients already taking this class of medications, and patients with an RCRI of 3 or greater

What are beta blockers?


This type of observational study compares people with dais to those without disease in order to identify relevant risk factors.

What is a case control study?


ERCP is contraindicated in acute pancreatitis EXCEPT in cases of impacted gallstones or this condition.

What is ascending cholangitis?


This is the mechanism of action of mirtazapine, an anti depressant that is sedative and can increase appetite

What is alpha 2 receptor antagonism?


Airborne precautions include placing patient in negative pressure private room and wearing high density masks or self contained breathing systems. Airbore precautions are required with COVID, Herpes zoster infection if disseminated, measles, SARS, VZV until lesions dry, TB with pulmonary or laryngeal disease, and this virus which made headlines for visiting Dallas in 2014

What is Ebola?


Exposure to volatile anesthetics or succinylcholine can lead to hypercapnia, tachycardia, arrhythmia, muscle rigidity, and rhabdo in certain patients. It is treated with this drug

What is dantrolene?

(MH treatment)


This p-value is considered statistically significant

what is <0.05?


Associated with iron deficiency anemia, this syndrome causes dysphagia due to an upper esophageal web

What is Plummer-Vinsom syndrome?


A rare but life threatening side effect of this medication is agranulocytosis. This drug is the gold standard for managing schizophrenia

What is clozapine?


The USPSTF, a low dose chest CT screening for lung cancer should be completed in patients who meet ALL of the following criteria: 1. age 55-80 2. current smokers or those who quit within the past 15 years and 3._____

What is 30 or more pack year smoking history


Thyroid storm is a medical emergency. In addition to treatment with beta blockers, methimazole or PTU, and hydrocortisone 100mg q8H, patients with thyroid storm should also receive this medication to prevent thyroid hormone enterohepatic recycling

What is cholestyramine?


This is the formula to calculate number needed to harm

What is NNH = 1 / ARI (absolute risk increase)

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