Inductive VS Deductive
Inductive VS Fallacy
Fallacy VS Deductive
Types of Fallacies

All people of Irish descent have red hair, therefore since Cillian Murphy is of Irish descent, he will have red hair.

- This is an example of a weak inductive argument

-While it is true that a significant portion of people of Irish descent may have red hair, it does not necessarily follow that every individual of Irish descent will have red hair

- Hair color cannot be reliably predicted solely based on his ancestry and must also take into account recessive and dominant traits


Mr. Brocke didn’t participate in the community cleanup so he don’t care about the environment

  • Example of false dichotomy - Fallacy

  • This disregards Mr. Brocke in order to narrow the argument in the other person's favour. 

  • Only two options: Mr. Brocke cares about the environment OR Mr. Brocke doesn’t care for the environment.

  • It is very well probable that Mr. Brocke does indeed care about the environment, perhaps he was just busy during the community cleanup time. 

  • Attempts to drive the argument in a direction where only one answer can be given in order to incriminate opposing party (Mr. Brocke) 


All vegetables are healthy, french fries are a vegetable, we can deduce that french fries are healthy.

  • It is uncogent because the conclusion does not logically follow from the premises. French fries are typically made from potatoes, which are a vegetable, but the process of frying them in oil and adding salt can reduce their nutritional value, making them less healthy

  • it is unsound because at least one of the premises is false. In this case, the premise "all vegetables are healthy" is false because not all vegetables are necessarily healthy when prepared in certain ways


Everyone is buying this new upcoming stock and getting rich, so I should buy it too.

  • Example of a Bandwagon Appeal

  • Due to media exposure and peer pressure people may feel obligated to purchase certain things.

  • Even though this stock may plummet in future and people may lose all their money, they still decide to purchase it because they are influenced. Often, some people do not do research themselves and blindly invest their money. 


I enjoyed watching the The Hunger Games trilogy , therefore I will most likely enjoy the prequel of this movie series, The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes.  

- This is an example of a strong inductive argument 

-Based on past experiences, the person has inferred that they will also enjoy the prequel since it will share similar characteristics, themes, and appeal to the individual as the original trilogy did


All students who pass the final exam receive a certificate. Jane is a student who passed the final exam. Therefore, Jane will receive a certificate.

- It is cogent because it presents a logical argument where the conclusion follows from the premises.

- This is a sound argument because all premises are true and are placed in a logical order.


Ibuprofen has been proven to be an effective treatment to relieve pain. Therefore, an ibuprofen tablet will most likely help the pain in my knee.

- This is an example of a strong inductive argument 

- Based on proven statistics on the effectiveness of ibuprofen as an NSAID, the claim is made on concrete evidence


P1: Michael Jordan is better than no one at basketball P2: No one is better than Lebron James at basketball C: Michael Jordan is better than Lebron James at basketball. 

  • Example of equivocation - Fallacy

  • Argument is presented in a double sided way, making it misleading

  • The use of “no one” is used to represent everybody and nobody at the same time


An ad campaign that shows the possible health risks of smoking, such as heart disease and lung cancer, in an effort to get smokers to give it up. “Smoking destroys your lungs, slowly suffocating the breath of life from within. Please, don't let it deteriorate your health, robbing you of vitality and stealing precious moments with loved ones. Your family will be left shattered, their hearts torn asunder, if you succumb to the ravages of smoking, leaving behind only memories tainted by the agony of loss.

  • Example of appeal to emotion

  • The campaign appeals to the emotions of the smoker to try to persuade them to quit smoking in order to better their health

  • Let's say you’re a smoker, think about how happy you’ll be if you listen to this statement and stop smoking, only to find out later that the statement was true. On the flipside, think about how sad you’ll be if you quit smoking and find out the statement is false


All mammals have hair or fur. Whales are mammals. Therefore, whales have hair or fur.

  • This is an example of a not cogent deductive statement

  • It states that all mammals must have either hair or fur. If this is the case, whales must have fur, but they do not. This is what makes this argument unsound


Every time I studied diligently for my exams, I have achieved high grades. Therefore, if I continue to study diligently for my upcoming exams, it is likely that I will achieve high grades once again.

- This is an example of a strong inductive argument 

-Based on the cause-and-effect relationship between diligent studying and high grades

-Since this pattern has held true for every instance in the past, it is reasonable to infer that it will likely continue in the future


Every time I wear my lucky shirt, my favorite sports team has won. Therefore, if I wear my lucky shirt to my team's next game, they will definitely win.

- This is an example of a weak inductive argument

-It may be coincidental that the team has won every time the individual wore the lucky shirt

-superstitions like wearing lucky items are based on belief rather than evidence


All birds have feathers. Penguins are birds. Therefore, they have feathers.

  • This is an example of a cogent deductive statement as it follows a logical structure and the conclusion is derived from the initial premise.

  • This statement is sound because the initial premise is accurate, as the defining traits about all birds have feathers


Person A: You should stop drinking alcohol because it is bad for your health. Person B: I’m not listening to you because you were an alcoholic.

  • Example of Ad Hominem

  • Rather than providing a valid response to the argument, Person B is attacking Person A for being an alcoholic. This is Person B’s form of invalidating or dismissing what Person A said.

  • This is a fallacy as it does not provide adequate evidence about why they should/shouldn’t drink alcohol. 


Over the past few days, I have encountered long lines at the checkout every time I have gone to the Shoppers Drug Mart on a Monday. Therefore, if I go to the Shoppers Drug Mart next Monday, I will have to wait long.

- This is an example of a weak inductive argument

-claim is based on the individual's experiences over just a few days, which may not be representative of the typical situation at Shoppers Drug Mart on Mondays


All cars require fuel to operate, and a Tesla Model S is a car. Therefore, the Tesla Model S requires fuel to operate.

  • It is not cogent because the conclusion does not logically follow from the premises. The premise states that "all cars require fuel to operate," but Tesla's Model S is an electric vehicle and does not require fuel. Therefore, the conclusion that "the Tesla Model S requires fuel to operate" does not logically follow from the premises. It is unsound because at least one of the premises is false. The premise that "all cars require fuel to operate" is false because electric vehicles like the Tesla Model S do not rely on fuel in the same way as other engine cars do.


Milk is good for you because it has vitamins and minerals. Therefore, the minerals and vitamins in milk are good for you

  • Example of a circular fallacy

  • Instead of providing factual information and proof to back up the claim about milk being healthy, the argument is restated in a similar manner.


 All cats have ears. Mr. Brocke has ears. Therefore, Mr. Brocke is a cat. 

  • This is an example of an uncogent deductive statement. 

  • Both cats and humans share the quality of having ears, however they are not the same species. Therefore, making the conclusion of this argument unsound and invalid.


You need to work out to have muscles. If you don't work out, you will die. 

  • Example of a slippery slope:

  • You need to work out to have muscles. If you don't work out you won't have strong muscles. If you don't have strong muscles you won't be able to support your body. If you can’t support your body you will be unable to feed yourself. If you can't feed yourself you will starve. If you starve you will die. Therefore, if you don't work out, you will die. 

  • A conclusion was drawn based on one small step leading to a chain of significantly unfortunate events. 

  • Main issue is being covered by extreme hypotheticals, no real proof to support the argument

  • Oftentimes parents portray this fallacy unto their children to sway them on the right path of life. 


Person A: LGBTQ+ people should have more rights.

Person B: Well, why do LGBTQ+ individuals force their belief on others?

  • Example of Straw Man

  • This argument displays a response which adds nothing to the original comment.

  • Instead of providing a valid reason why LGBTQ+ members should/should not have more rights, they are bringing up a point which is contributing to the initial conversation.

  • This is not a good response as it does not address the argument but strays away from the point.


Over the past decade, every time a new BMW model has been released, there has been a significant increase in sales during the first month. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that when the next BMW model is released, there will be a surge in sales during its initial release month.

- This is an example of a strong inductive argument 

- Argument is based on empirical evidence rather than mere speculation or anecdotal instances


Every time I ordered pizza from a particular restaurant, it arrived late. Therefore, if I order pizza from the same restaurant tonight, it will definitely be late.

- This is an example of a weak inductive argument

-It assumes that past occurrences will invariably repeat themselves in the future without considering other factors


An individual walked into a beauty parlour and saw only female workers. From this small observation, the individual has claimed that only females work as beauticians. 

  • Example of a Hasty Generalization - Fallacy

  • This is often considered a stereotype as someone makes a generalization due to observing a small sample size. 

  • The lack of exposure results in the person believing one argument is true without acknowledging other scenarios or factors.


Mr. Poppe is the same as Mr. Belas because they are both science teachers.

  • Example of false analogy

  • Just because they are both science teachers does not mean they are the same. However, it is probable that they share numerous qualities/characteristics such as height, teaching styles, interests, hobbies etc. 


Every time I have watched a movie directed by Taika Waititi, I have not enjoyed it. Therefore, if I watch another movie directed by the same filmmaker, I will definitely not enjoy it.

- This is an example of a weak inductive argument

-Does not guarantee the same outcome for all future movies by the same filmmaker