alcohol 1
alcohol 2
alcohol 3
alcohol 4
alcohol 5
What type of drug is alcohol?
What is a common street name for alcohol?
What form does alcohol come in?
How is alcohol administered?
Ingested orally through mouth
What % of the United States population has consumed alcohol during their lifetime? (>18)
Regarding rates of current drinking, how many Americans aged 12 or older reported drinking in the last month?
What gender & age has the highest consumption rates in the United States?
18-25 year old men
What ethnic groups have highest consumption rates in the United States?
Non-Hispanic whites followed by Native Americans and Hispanics
What ethnic groups have the lowest consumption rates in the United States?
Non-Hispanic blacks and Asians
What is the course of dependence for alcohol?
Generally: Mid-20s- binge drinking, significant intoxication, blackouts & hangovers (As heavy drinking persists->tolerance builds->alcohol consumption escalates. Increased frequency & intensity may be associated with irresistible urges often triggered by environmental cues) Early 30s- frequent work absences, family conflicts, legal problems, & accidents Mid-late 30s- loss of control over drinking, worsening of problems & onset of medical complications, attention to care deteriorates, despite losses- consumption dominates life, may try to conceal drinking because of guilt Late 30s- early 40s- more medical complications, frequent hospitalizations, voluntary/involuntary efforts to stop drinking- often resumes because of withdrawl & to avoid symptoms Continued- can be fatal + other medical complications
What variables influence course of dependence & response to treatment?
Age of onset, severity of disease, and presence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders
What is Type I & Type II alcoholism?
Type I- Environmental factors play a major role, can affect men & women, late initiation of problem drinking & rapid development of tolerance, experience guilt & anxiety but don’t usually have legal problems or engage in antisocial behavior Type II- Male-limited, genetics play major role, transmission usually from fathers- sons, drinking problems at a young age, don’t experience guilt, frequently involved in antisocial behavior & have legal problems (INTERGENERATIONAL)
What are the cognitive effects of alcoholism?
Most alcoholics- mild to moderate deficiencies in intellectual functioning, diminished brain size, changes in brain cell activity, visuospatial and higher-cognitive functioning is negatively affected, perceiving & remembering is affected, & have abstract thinking problems
What are the emotional effects of alcohol?
May experience stress, depression, anxiety, narrowed perception, instability of emotions, anger, & guilt
What are the physical and neurochemical effects of alcoholism?
-Induced persisting amnesic disorder (also called Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, lack of vitamin B1), dementia, memory (e.g., language, reasoning, and problem–solving abilities) -exhibit disturbances in behavior such as aggression, sexual behavior issues, slurred speech, lack of coordination, impairment of attention/memory
What type of treatment is indicated for alcohol withdrawl?
Medical detoxification
What type of psychosocial treatments are available for alcoholism?
Individual CBT, self-help groups (AA), family therapy, recreational and occupational therapy, integrated rehabilitation plans
What type of family support is indicated for alcoholism?
Family therapy, however few studies document efficacy of family interventions aimed at reducing drinking problems or improving family functioning. Families- don’t preach, lecture, or enable the alcoholic financially or emotionally, learn about different programs and 12 steps
What are some withdrawl symptoms & complications?
Automatic hyperactivity, increased heart rate, tremor, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, (10% experience delirium)
How soon does withdrawl begin?
-4-12 hours after last drink & reaches peak after 48 hours & subsides after 4 to 5 days of sobriety -less severe symptoms can last for a few weeks & up to 6 months
Effective techniques used in CBT?
- relapse prevention, social skills & assertiveness training, motivational enhancement, contingency management, cognitive restructuring, cue exposure therapy, & behavioral marital therapy - emphasize teaching of adaptive skills aimed at changing reinforcers of drinking behavior & learning alternative interpersonal & coping skills to deal with events, thoughts, & feelings that promote consumption
What are some main concepts used in AA?
- providing social support for recovery - emphasizing notion of alcoholic's powerlessness over drinking - existence of a higher power a means to restore sanity & maintain sobriety - promotes the disease concept of alcoholism in which lifelong abstinence is the only means to recovery
a. What percentage of people diagnosed with alcohol use disorder experience a drug use disorder? & b. What percentage of people diagnosed with drug abuse or dependence are diagnosed with an alcohol use problem?
a. 13.05% b. 55.2%
What are some common disorders diagnosed in alcoholics?
- mania/hypomania, depression - panic disorder with agoraphobia - ASPD
In the United States, excessive drinking is the ______ leading preventable cause of death.
3rd. - 2001- 75,766 deaths due to alcohol consumption - risk to global health - in 2003- 2.3 million deaths - drinking is associated with 60 health problems esp. liver disease, cancer of gastrointestinal track, breast cancer, fetal alcohol syndrome, immunologic impairments, seizures, & neuropsychiatric disorders
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