What is the author's purpose of an advertisement? And why?

To persuade. Ads are selling something that they want the audience to buy


List the 3 perspectives in writing and what they are

First - I, me, my, we, us, our

Second - you, your, you're

Third - they, them, he, she, others, one


Give a one sentence example of the following tenses: past, present, and future

Past: did/was/had

Present: am, are, is

Future: will, going to



List 3 conventions of a DIARY/journal

- first person

- includes a date

- personal anecdote and opinions

- paragraph form


List 5 literary elements and/or figures of speech

Similes, metaphors, oxymorons, juxtaposition, personification, hyperboles, anaphora, zeugma, synecdoche, asyndeton, onomatopoeia, vivid imagery, etc.


State the structure of an intro sentence/thesis sentence for the part of the exam which tells you to analyze the form, structure, and language of a piece of writing.

The author writes a (form) for a (publication location) in order to (author's purpose) an audience (can specify who the audience is.)


IF there is no discernible structure in a piece (you can't really tell if it's chronological, there's not really any flashbacks, etc.) -- what should you say about order?

NOTHING. If you have nothing to say about order--if there's no discernible reason the author structured their writing like they did--do not mention it.


What are the two registers? Explain each. Then explain the depending factor that would make an author select the register.

Formal: upper level language, no slang/colloquial terminology, lack of contractions and acronyms, less likely to be written in first person

Informal: casual/colloquial language, may include casual punctuation elements (like contractions or acronyms), may include first person

Register depends on the audience and/or publication location. (For example, an article published in The New York Times is going to be more formal than a review published on Yelp.)


List 3 conventions of a LETTER

- date

- greeting (formal or informal) 

- address

- closing at the end

- first person 

-paragraph form


Analyze the author's intention when structuring the following sentences:

Oh how her anger burned as she looked at him! That infuriating mustache! Those condescending eyes! She hated him! Would destroy him! 

- short, fragmented sentences

- colloquial diction

- exclamation points

Combined to give a speedy, frustrated impression and emphasize her hatred/passion to the audience. 


Tell me why the author of an article profiling a Michelin star chef might follow the conventions of an article. 

- to be professional so the audience finds the information to be credible

- to be professional so that the audience understands the reverential tone of the article

- to relate to the audience that the information is important, credible, and ethical


Name which perspective the following forms are conventionally written in:

- Diaries

- Reviews

- Leaflets/Brochures

Diaries: First

Reviews: First

Leaflets/Brochures: Second


Imagine an article about authentic Mexican food that included the following sentence: "Let's taco 'bout it!"

Qualify this sentence and explain the author's purpose in using it.

This is a subject-specific pun (play on words) and author's use them to infuse humor as a way to relate to their audience, make their writing more appealing/easier to process


List 3 conventions of a REVIEW

- first person

- personal anecdote/experience of the event/product/etc.

- ends on a recommendation 

- chatty or formal depending on audience/publication location 


"I've told you this a million times." is an example of what?

Hyperbole (great exaggeration) 


Imagine: A speech discussing gender inequality in the work place relies heavily on personal stories about how they have personally been discriminated against in the past because of their gender.

Which appeal is the author using? Why is the author using this appeal?

The author is using pathos to form a personal connection with the audience and emphasize that gender inequality is not a generalized topic that effects "others," but is very personal, relatable, and effects real people in harmful ways.

- statistics about such a sensitive topic might seem cold or sterile; personal stories helps the audience connect and therefore sympathize with the author's purpose


Name 2 types of Order possibilities in a piece of writing

- chronological

- cause and effect

- problem/solution 


In a diary entry by a scientist living in a beach-town, she draws comparisons between the solitude of rainy days versus the surplus of tourists milling about on sunny days. While rainier days aid her work as they provide privacy, the sunnier days far improve her emotional state. 

Discuss the element she is utilizing while making these comparisons. 

Juxtaposition between rain and shine.

Irony in the contract between her mood/the weather.


List 3 conventions of a PODCAST

- dialogue format (colons, no commas)

- two or more characters with individual voices

- should feel like a conversation, could be an interview

- typically informal

- chatty, colloquial language, radio-ready register 


Identify the element used and explain the author's possible intentions in the following sentence:

"The sinister man slithered into the room, sliding into his seat as he snuck a sly glance at her."

Alliteration (repeated "S" sounds used.) 

Snake imagery and hissing noise used to imply evil/villainous/bad behavior 


Tell me why the author of a letter (to a family member) about a vacation gone wrong might not follow the typical conventions of a letter. (For instance: there is no sign-off, the greeting is short, it lacks background information.) 

- the author might not follow the typical conventions of a letter to display how close/familiar/intimate they are with the recipient of the letter 

- it parallels the bad experience, a vacation gone wrong might be emphasized through the poorly/haphazardly written letter


Why might the author of a persuasive article about the threat of global warming and climate change switch from third person to a collective/pluralized first person?

Along the lines of: As an expression of pathos, to include the reader as more than just an audience member but an active part of the problem/subject. This puts the reader in the shoes of someone with responsibility and emotionally persuades them into taking accountability for the problems.


Define the literary element and explain WHY the author used the language they did.

"The more she followed him the hotter did she burn, as when the flame flares upward from the sulfur on the torch."

Simile (i.e. "as")

Flames/fire often used in comparison/as a symbol of love due to similarities in nature: bright, hot, burns, can be extinguished, fragile but consuming, etc.


List 3 conventions of a SPEECH

- first person (maybe some second person)

- rhetorical devices (ethos, pathos, logos)

- repetition 

- strong, loaded language

- informative, or persuasive, or entertaining


Define a "motif"

A symbolic idea, image, or concept repeated throughout a piece of writing