Animal Models & The Brain
Animal Models & Hormones
Animal Models & Genetics
Ethics & Limitations
General Psych

Weiskrantz studied the function of which part of the brain?

The amygdala.


What response is cortisol associated to? 

Stress response


What is a "knockout mouse?"

A mouse that has had a specific gene "turned off" (which means it doesn't send signals from the cell.)


Animal studies might not be able to be applied to humans. This is an issue of ......bility?



True or False? You will definitely have an exam question about animal studies in your IB exam.


One, two or all three of the Paper 1, Section B questions will be based on the extensions. 


Weiskrantz's study suggested that the amygdala has a function in what behaviour?

Emotion (Fear)


What were the two conditions in Sapolsky's study?

Cortisol pellet in the hippocampus


Cholesterol pellet in the hippocampus


What were the two conditions in Mosienko et al.'s study?

TPH2 knockout mice were compared with normal control mice in the resident-intruder test.


What are two ethical considerations relevant to using animals in experimentation?

1) Justification

2) Animal welfare


How many essay questions will be based on the extensions in Paper 1?

One, two or all three.


Sapolsky's study shows that cortisol may affect the...



What were three findings from Albert et al.'s study?

- Castration reduced aggression in alpha males

- Replacing testosterone restored aggression

- Castrated alphas lost their alpha position


How did Van Oortmerssen and Bakker figure out which rats to selectively breed?

They measured their attack latency using the resident-intruder test.


What's it called when animals are humanely killed to put an end to their suffering?



True or false: Koko's favorite pet was a puppy dog

False. It was a kitten


What were two ways the enriched cage differed from the deprived cage in Rosenzweig and Bennett's experiment?

Other rats in the cage

Toys to play with


What color is the sun?



What was the heritability of aggression found in Van Oortmerssen and Bakker's study?

0.3 (30%)

This means that 30% of the differences in aggression between the rats is attribution to genetics.


What are the two major strengths of using animal models to understand human behavior?

1) Variables can be manipulated in a way that would be ethically or practically impossible to do on humans (e.g. brain lesioning)

2) Researchers can conduct tightly controlled experiments to draw cause-effect relationships (e.g. keeping living environments consistent in studies on the effects of brain damage).


What are ethics review committees in charge of?

Ensuring that conditions for experiments run all follow high standards 


What were three specific findings from Rosenzweig and Bennett's experiments regarding synapses, receptors and % brain weight growth?

Synapses increased 20%

More acetylcholine receptors

Brain increased in weight 7-10%


What were the four conditions in Albert et al.'s study?

A. Castration 

B. Castration followed by implanting of tubes with testosterone 

C. Castration followed by implanting of empty tubes 

D. A “sham” castration followed by implanting of empty tubes


What were three results in Mosienko et al.'s study?

100% of the TPH2 knockout mice attacked within five minutes of the test beginning compared to 22% of the control group.

The TPH2 knockout mice attacked seven times faster than the control group.

The total number of attacks and the total time spent attacking was also seven times more than the control group of mice.


What are two reasons why findings in animal studies on aggression might not generalize to humans?

Culture: we have more sophisticated cultures that teach us values, that in turn influence our thinking and decision making in situations involving aggression.

Cognition: we have more sophisticated thought processes that allow us to inhibit our biological impulses.

Both of the above mean that a simple change in biology isn't guaranteed to change our behaviour as they can be moderators of the relationship between biology and behaviour.


True or false: The most interesting subject to study in the IB is, for sure, psychology

True =D