enzyme classifications
The Citric Acid Cycle <3
Cellular Transport
The Central Dogma
Mystery!
100

these enzymes catalyze REDOX reactions. they often have a cofactor that acts as an electron carrier.

oxidoreductases

100

what is the 2 carbon molecule that gets fed into the cycle?

acetyl CoA

100

how many times does a GPCR cross the membrane?

7

100

what are the two kinds of point mutations?

missense & nonsense

100

this process adds a CH3 (methyl) group to cytosine and adenine

DNA methylation

200

these enzymes catalyze the movement of a functional group from one molecule to another

transferases

200

what is the 4 carbon molecule made at the end of the cycle? (made in step 8 from malate)

oxaloacetate

200

name the three kinds of ion channels. (NOT cell receptors, specifically ion channels)

ungated, voltage-gated, ligand-gated

200

define a frameshift mutation

occurs when some number of nucleotides are added or deleted from an mRNA sequence. Shifts the reading frame. 

200

name the 2 parts of a phospholipid

polar head (contains a phosphate group), hydrophobic fatty acid tail

300

these enzymes catalyze a reaction where a compound is broken into two molecules using the addition of water. 

hydrases

300

how many molecules of CO2 are produced per churn of the citric acid cycle (per 1 acetyl CoA) 

2

300

what converts ATP --> cAMP in GPCR signalling

adenyl cyclase

300

Name 2 of the 3 stop codons

UGA, UAA, UAG

300

how many complexes in the electron transport chain pump protons across the membrane?

3 (complexes 1, 3 and 4)

400
these enzymes catalyze the cleavage of a single molecule into two products. this is for reactions that do NOT require water.

Lyases

400

the reaction that forms isocitrate from citrate is catalyzed by this kind of enzyme

isomerase (citrate and isocitrate are isomers)

400

what kind of ion channel is located in the axon?

voltage-gated 

400

what are the 3 modifications that happen to mRNA before it is transported to the cytoplasm?

splicing, adding 5' cap, adding 3' poly A tail

400

enzymes that have multiple binding sites are called...

allosteric enzymes

500

These enzymes catalyze addition or synthesis reactions. these reactions often require ATP

Ligases

500

This amino acid is located in the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction in step 5 of the cycle (forming succinate from siccinyl CoA)

Histidine (R group accepts a phosphate group, this phosphate is used to make GTP)

500

How is the GPCR system activated?

the ligand binds, a GTP molecule REPLACES GDP (this is the main point), then the alpha subunit activates adenyl cyclase

500

these proteins assist in the protein-folding process. 

chaperones

500

saturation/unsaturation in fatty acids refers to...

the number of H's/the number of C-C double bonds (either answer ok)

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