Functional Groups Cellular Architecture Macromolecules Thermodynamics Keyterms

100

What is an alcohol?
A molecule that contains a hydroxyl group (R-OH)

100

What is nuclear membrane, compartmentalization, unicellular versus multicellular organisms, level of complexity
One difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

100

What is DNA
This macromolecule contains guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine.

100

What is thermodynamics
The study of energy and its effect on matter .

100

What is hydrolysis?
The cleavage of bonds by the addition of water.

200

What is an ester? (R-COOH)
A molecules that contains a carbon double bonded to an oxygen as well as a hydroxyl group.

200

What is the mitochondrion?
The "cellular power plant", this organelle generates the cell's supply of ATP in eukaryotes

200

What is protein
this macromolecule is comprised of 20 different amino acids, can vary in length, shape and function

200

What is enthalpy?
The first law of thermodynamics states that all energy is conserved and is usually described as:

200

What is replication
process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule

300

What is an aldehyde? R-C(H)=O
A molecule that contains a carbonyl goup

300

What is the cytoskeleton?
A network of filaments that provide cellular structure and the ability to move

300

What is glycogen
This macromolecule is a multibranced polysaccride of glucose and serves as a form of energy storage in animals.

300

What is entropy
The second law of thermodynamics states that ____ tends to increase.

300

What is an organic compound
Any member of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon

400

What is R-PO4-R'
Draw a phosphodiester

400

What is the lysosome?
These endosomal bodies contain hydrolitic enzymes capable of digesting proteins and nucleic acids.

400

What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts, able to accelerate the rate of reactions without being consumed by the reaction.

400

What is negative and positive.
For a reaction to be spontaneous, dH must be _____ and dS must be ____.

400

What is equilibrium
state in which both concentrations of reactants and products have no further tendency to change in time

500

What is NR3 or N+R4?
Draw the two possible amino groups

500

What is the ribosome?
This marcomolecule comprised of both RNA and protein serves as the primary site of protein synthesis.

500

What is plasma membrane
The biological membrane that separates the interior of the cells from the outside environment.

500

What is dG=DH-TdS and dG=-RTlnK
Write out the two equations defining gibbs free energy (dG)

500

What is metabolism.
The set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

Biochemistry Pre-Course Review

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