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100

what is natural selection

process where environment puts pressure on population so certain alleles become more common variation in population of orginazation for it to occur

100

differencial reproductive success 

pass traits on more often than others who don't have it 

must be genetically inherited 

100

potential sources of earths molecules 

prebiotic soup

space- asteroids and meteoroids 

iron-sulfur process- ocean(hydrothermal vents)

100

firsts genetic material

hypothesis= that RNA came first than natural selection occured

100

RNA enzyme

ribosome

200

fitness

ability to survive and reproduce 

best suited to environment makes more babies 

200

genetic variation

the difference in alleles within a population 

important for natural selection alleles must already exist

die if we cant change genetically if we can species live longer because they can bounce back

200

directional selection

select for extreme phenotype favor one extreme phenotype eliminating another 

200

stabilizing selection

eliminating both extreme alleles and choosing the intermediate one

200

disruptive selection

eliminating the intermediate and goes for extreme phenotype

300

allopatric 

the difference from normal/ new home 

isolation geographically causes this, too many changes occur which creates different species 

300

sympatric speciation

stay in same environment but have different appearances

300

2 ways species change in geographic areas

changes in behavior,# of chromosomes

300

genetic drift

has to be a small population for this to occur

300

bottleneck effect

randomly reduce genetic diversity, whoever survives is new genetic frequency 

400

founder effect 

result of migration, small group leaves population starts a new population allele frequency

vastly different from one they moved away from

400

equillibruim 

no mutations 

no gene transferred

random mating 

large population

no selection if these are not true

400

p

q

p2

2pq

q2

dominate alleles homo/hetero 

recessive alleles

homo dominate 

heterozygote

homo recessive

400

trade off natural selection 

traits that are selected that allow them to produce more offspring being selected for sex standout but get eat more often due to the stand out traits

400

fossil record evidence for evolution

we can look for changes that have occurred, link between organisms shows us stages organisms went through

500

homologous structure

same evolutional history but different function and structure now

500

evolution

change in allele frequency 

microevolutionary dissent with modification

modifying based on environmental structures happens in a population

500

convergent evolution

things that have similar traits that exist because similar environmental structure 

500

vegistal 

evolutionary leftovers organism doesn't need anymore but ancestors have it

500

biological species concept 

able to produce offspring

same species 

asexually reproduce