Anatomy
Neurons and Neurotransmitters
The Nervous System
Brain Development
Miscellaneous

100

Cerebral cortex, wrinkled for surface area.
What is gray matter?

100

The 3 main parts of a neuron
What are the cell body, dendrites, and axon?

100

Nervous system made up of the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord.
What is the central nervous system?

100

3 layers that are formed first during embryonic development
What are the endoderm, the ectoderm, and the mesoderm?

100

Two names for glia cells.
What are oligodendrocytes (in the brain) and Schwann cells (in the PNS).

200

The 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex
What are frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal?

200

Contact point where one neuron communicates with another.
What is a synapse?

200

Nervous system made of nerves and ganglia.
What is the peripheral nervous system?

200

Most common type of "scaffolding" for neurons during migration to their destination in the brain.
What are glia cells?

200

When a neuron switches from an internal negative charge to a positive one. This enables it to send an impulse.
What is an action potential?

300

Fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
What is the corpus callosum?

300

A covering of glia cells on the axon that increases the speed of the electrical signals neurons use to communicate
What is the myelin sheath?

300

Uses energy during times of stress
What is the sympathetic nervous system?

300

External force that can prevent proper neuron migration when the baby is developing.
What are drugs?

300

A stress hormone that can help in moments of danger, but also impair the brain's ability to learn if there is too much.
What is cortisol?

400

Part of the brain that sorts and relays sensory information on to the cerebral cortex.
What is the thalamus?

400

The first neurotransmitter to be discovered. It causes muscles to contract and control the heartbeat.
What is acetylcholine?

400

Conserves energy during relaxation, including sleep.
What is the parasympathetic nervous system?

400

The ability of the brain to adapt to challenges of the environment.
What is plasticity?

400

Number of neurons in a mammalian brain.
What is between 100 million and 100 billion?

500

2 parts of the hindbrain that regulates basic life processes like breathing, heart rate, and blood glucose levels.
What are the pons and the medulla oblongata?

500

2 inhibitory neurotransmitters
What are GABA and glycine?

500

Parts of the body that experience the outside environment ex) nerves in skin
What is the somatic nervous system?

500

A specific signaling molecule created by the mesoderm. Proximity to this molecule determines what a cell will become.
What is the sonic hedgehog?

500

Program cell death started by the cells. This happens if neural connections aren't used or the neuron doesn't receive trophic factors.
What is apoptosis?