The Neuron and Neurotransmitters
Stress
Sensing the Environment
Brain Development
Sleep

100

The type of signal conduction that occurs along a myelinated axon. It means "jumping from node to node".
What is saltatory conduction?

100

Specialized sensory cells that convert light energy into electrical energy.
What are photoreceptors?

100

One of the three embryonic tissues that ultimately gives rise to the brain.
What is ectoderm?

100

Part of sleep cycles when active dreaming occurs.
REM sleep

200

These glial cells form the myelin sheath of a nerve cell.
What are Schwann cells?

200

The two cell types that sense light in the retina of the eye?
What are the rod and cone cells?

200

The three bulges that appear on the brain approximately four weeks after conception?
The Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

200

The most common sleep disorder.
What is insomnia?

300

Upon reaching the end of an axon, voltage changes trigger the release of which chemical messengers?
Neurotransmitters

300

When the body is exposed to stressors, this hormone is released into the bloodstream to put the body into a general state of arousal and enable it to cope with a challenge
What is Epinephrine (aka adrenaline.)?

300

Sound is "sensed" by which part of the ear? (Hint: This part of the ear contains hair cells.)
What is the cochlea?

300

The two parts of a neuron that can grow and form connections with other neurons.
What is the dendrites and axons?

300

Trouble breathing, and prevention from entering deeper stages of slow wave sleep are the symptoms of this common sleep disorder.
What is obstructive sleep apnea?

400

This refers to the brains ability to adapt over time; to change, to grow new neurons, to prune away unused neurons.
What is plasticity?

400

The part of the brain where the optic nerve from the right eye, crosses the optic nerve from the left eye on the pathway from the eye to the occipital lobe at the back of the cerebrum.
What is the optic chiasm?

400

One of these three environmental effects can interfere with neural cell migration during fetal development which can lead to epilepsy or retardation.
What is alcohol, cocaine or radiation?

400

During REM sleep, atonia occurs, which means this.
What is muscle paralysis?

500

What is released by neurons connected to voluntary muscles, causing them to contract? (Hint: It's the first neurotransmitter to be discovered)
Acetylcholine, or ACh

500

After being collected by the pinna, sound waves are funneled to this sound amplifying membrane.
What is the tymphanic membrane?

500

Ectoderm cells that are exposed to strong concentrations of this signaling molecule become glial cells in the brain.
What is sonic hedgehog?

500

The neurotransmitter that is lacking in people experiencing narcolepsy.
What is orexin?