Piaget's Theory
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Information Processing
Individual Differences in Mental Development
Language Development

100

Spans the years 2 to 7, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic activity
What is Preoperational Stage?

100

Children's self-directed speech is now called _______ ______ instead of egocentric speech.
Private Speech

100

Thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal
What is planning?

100

In academic programs, teachers provide activities from which children select, and much learning takes places through play. True or false
False

100

The assumption that words refer to entirely separate (non overlapping) categories
What is mutual exclusivity bias?

200

The make-believe with others that is under way by the end of the second year and that increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood
What is sociodramatic play?

200

The process by which two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding.
What is Intersubjectivity?

200

General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
What is scripts?

200

A federal program that began in 1965 that provides children with a year or two of preschool, along with nutritional and health services
What is Project Head Start?

200

Connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter, a process called __________.
Fast-mapping

300

Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
What is dual representation?

300

Vygotsky's theory addresses how elementary capacities spark changes in children's social experiences, from which more advanced cognition springs. True or False
False

300

When given challenging problems, children try out various strategies and observe which work best, which work less well, and which are ineffective
What is overlapping-waves theory?

300

In child-centered programs teachers structure children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill. True or false
False

300

Observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences
What is syntactic bootstrapping?

400

5 year old Ashley complained to her mom that the pizza was not big enough, Ashely's mom cut the pizza into smaller slices making Ashley happy as she believed the pizza had become larger. This is because Ashley has not yet acquired ___________.
Conservation

400

In the morning when Julissa does her makeup, she lets her 6 year old daughter put on play makeup as well. Her daughter observes and learns from her because she is more experienced. This is an example of
Guided Participation

400

4 year old Max is shown a crayon box, when asked what's inside he replies "Crayons" however he is then shown that there are candles inside. Max is then asked what his other brother, who is in the other room, would think is in the box. Max would most likely be able to explain his brothers and his own false beliefs. True or false
True

400

Which of these is not a program characteristic 1. Physical setting 2. Group size 3. Behavior of the individual child 4. Relationship with parents 5. Teacher qualifications
3. Behavior of the individual child

400

Young children rely on any useful information available to add to their vocabularies. True or false
True

500

Sarah and Joshua are 6 year old twins. Their parents bought them Battleship. When playing, Joshua calls out the same points he put his ships on thinking Sarah's side looks the same as his. Piaget would believe that Joshua's behavior is an example of __________.
Egocentrism

500

A child is having a hard time making a block tower. The teacher suggest, "The block tower keeps falling. One way we can fix it is by putting the bigger blocks on the bottom, what's another way that you think would help it stay up?" The teacher is using a technique referred to as __________.
Scaffolding

500

3 year old Max is shown a crayon box, when asked what's inside he replies "Crayons" however he is then shown that there are candles inside. Max is then asked what his other brother, who is in the other room, would think is in the box. Max would most likely NOT be able to explain his brothers and his own false beliefs. True or false
True

500

In the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project, children who received intervention were advantaged over no-intervention controls on all measure of life success when they reached adulthood. True or false
True

500

Linda is at the checkout at a grocery store, the cashier ask "How are you today?" instead of replying with in-depth detail about her health issues and how she just got recently dumped and is sad about it she replies "Good, how are you?" with the expectation the cashier will not go into full detail of how she truly is. This interaction is part of a practical, social side of language called _________.
Pragmatics