General Cognition
Schema Studies
MSM & WMM
Schema and its Theory
Biology and Memory

100

What is the definition of psychology?

The scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.

100

What was the name of Bartlett's research?

War of the Ghosts

100

What do MSM and WMM stand for?

Multi-Store Model and Working Memory Model

100

Define schema.

A schema is a set of mental representations, or ideas in our minds, that affect the way we perceive new information from the world. It's a cognitive framework.

100

What were the two areas of the brain affected in HM?

Temporal lobe and hippocampi

200

What is another name for cognition?

Mental Processes

200

Bartlett described memory as an active...(two words)

reconstructive process

200

For stimuli to enter sensory memory it must be...

attended to.

200

What is a term used to describe the process of fitting memories into existing schemas?

Assimilation

200

What are the major areas of the brain involved in memory encoding, storage, retrieval?

the cerebral cortices, frontal lobes, temporal lobes, hippocampi, amygdalae

300

What are three examples of cognitive processes?

Memory, Language, Problem-solving, Perception of sensory information, Thinking

300

What does Bransford and Johnson's study show about schemas?

That they can be activated to increase information processing efficiency (and that schema activation before processing information is more effective than activation after information is received).

300

What is one strength and one limitation of the MSM?

S = supported by evidence, first theory, promoted other models 

L = Too simplistic, doesn't focus on processing, linnear, unitary 

300

What are 3 TEACUP Evaluation points you can make about schema theory?

Various

300

What was the difference in the hippocampi of the taxi drivers compared to the normal controls in Maguire's study?

The posterior hippocampi was larger in the taxi drivers compared to the normal controls who had larger anterior hippocampi. 

400

Is emotion a cognitive process according to the IB?

no

400

What does Brewer & Treyen's study show about schemas?

That the details they include (e.g. what should be included in an office) can influence our later recall of events and situations to fit with our schema. 

400

What is the purpose of the episodic buffer?

The episodic buffer is the third member of the three subsystems of the WMM and integrates the other functions of the phonological loop (information heard) and visio-spatial sketchpad (information seen) with a sense of time, so that things occur in a continuing sequence, like a story from a book or movie. 

This theory is used to explain why memories can be experienced as a coordinated sequence of events rather than as discrete segments.

400

What are four functions of schemas?

Increasing information processing efficiency 

Helping us organise and categorise knowledge and information in our minds 

Allowing us to make generalisations and predictions about people, events and objects. 

Allowing easier and faster decision making, especially in ambiguous situations. 

Saving our cognitive energy

400

What did Cahill and Macguah find in their study on Flashbulb Memory?

That there may be a biological basis for it. Specifically, amygdala activation is higher when recalling memories thought to be FBM than other episodic memories. When we block amygdala activation during emotional memories, they are not remembered as well. 

500

What is one way in which mental processes can influence our behaviour?

Schemas - script schemas guide our behaviour in certain situations; schemas can also influence memory.

500

What were the 3 ways that participants modified the 'War of the Ghosts' story in Bartlett's study?

Assimilation: The story became more consistent with the participants’ own cultural expectations - that is, details were unconsciously changed to fit the norms of British culture. 

Leveling: The story also became shorter with each retelling as participants omitted information which was seen as not important. 

Sharpening: Participants also tended to change the order of the story in order to make sense of it using terms more familiar to the culture of the participants. They also added detail and/or emotions.

500

What studies can you use to support the MSM?

HM, Glanzer and Cunitz

500

What are two limitations of schema theory?

The theory doesn't explain how schemas are acquired in the first place. 

Experimental research can't show their existence, only their influence on behaviour. 

It's difficult to find biological supporting evidence.

Too Vague to be useful (Cohen) 

500

What are 3 Evaluative Points you could make about FBM Theory?

Answers Vary