Logical Fallacy
Categorical Logic/
Propositional Logic

This type of thinking is based on the idea that there is no “objective” or “absolute” truth—that truth varies from individual to individual, or from culture to culture.

What is relativistic thinking?


An inductive argument that both is strong and has all true premises.

What is a cogent inductive argument?


Identify the logical fallacy in the argument.

When will the American people finally realize that the Democrats are leading this country straight into socialism?

loaded question


Put the following statements in symbolic form. 

It’s not the case that if the groundhog doesn’t see his shadow, then spring is not coming in six weeks.

~(~g → ~s)


Fail to be precise; Vague words; Overgeneralization; Ambiguity of words and sentence structure.

What characteristics of language might lead to miscommunication?


The following arguments are inductive. Determine whether the arguments are cogent or uncogent. 

In poker it’s OK to lie and deceive. Business is like poker. Therefore, in business it’s OK to lie and deceive.



Identify the logical fallacy in this argument.

One of your readers suggested we should ban smoking [in public places] like California does. I’m from New York and New York State tried to do something similar, but think about this. You might be concerned with the filthy smoke that streams over to the nonsmoking section, but realize this: When your state starts to control your actions that’s just the beginning, and soon everything else will be controlled. You might want to think about that. If you don’t like places that allow smoking, try going somewhere that does not allow it.

slippery slope


Put the following statements in symbolic form.

If it is the case that if the sun shines then the game is on, then if the storm doesn’t hit, I’ll be at the park.

(s → g)  → (~s  → p)


Mild or evasive words that take the place of harsh, negative words.

What is Euphemism?


Determine whether the following arguments are deductive or inductive. If the argument is deductive, determine whether it is valid or invalid. If the argument is inductive, determine whether it is strong or weak.

On Monday I drank ten rum-and-Cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. On Wednesday I drank eight gin-and?Cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. On Friday I drank nine bourbon-and-Cokes, and the next morning I woke up with a headache. Obviously, to prevent further headaches, I must give up Coke. 

inductive, week


In regards to the teachers working on the Dallas [Pennsylvania] curriculum. That’s a joke. I had two daughters nine years apart in the Dallas Middle School. Both had the same two science teachers, they used the same exact questions and lesson plans nine years later. Come on guys, wake up. Science changes on a daily basis.

Dallas teachers are a joke and an embarrassment.

hasty generalization


Assume that a, b, and c are true, and x, y, and z are false, then determine whether each of the following is true or false.

~(b → c) & (~x → ~a)