Laying the
Shaping State and
District Curricula
Working with
Key Terms/Concepts

What does it mean to be a "curriculum leader"?

(Chapter 1: What It Means to be a Curriculum Leader)

A curriculum leader is someone who is directly involved or has constant, hands-on involvement in leading curriculum design, development, and implementation in a school or national curriculum. 


What are curriculum maps?

(Chapter 6: District Curricula)

*Curriculum maps are plans and processes for developing scope and sequence charts.

*These are document based on what is taught and when; they reveal gaps in the curriculum; help design an assessment plan; improve staff communication; enhance program coherence; promote reflective practice, etc.


A curriculum of excellence is _________________.

(Chapter 7: Developing Vision and Goals)

1. meaningful

2. technological

3. socially responsible

4. multicultural

5. reflective

6. holistic

7. global

8. open-ended

9. outcomes-based 


What is the role of the teacher in the development of the units of study?

(Chapter 14: Developing Units of Study)

Based on Educational Broadcasting Corp (2004):



*Scaffolding and fading





*This is a reference    point    or    standard    against which    performance   or   achievements   can   be   assessed.   (Source: OECD 2002) 

*It is a more specific component of a standard that is usually assigned to a grade or grade level.

*It is known as a grade-specific and subject-specific standard.



Provide at least TWO generic skills for a 21st century workplace.

(Chapter 1: What It Means to be a Curriculum Leader)

1. Mastery of key subjects and 21st century themes

2. Learning and innovation skills

3. Information, media and technology skills

4. Life and career skills


Differentiate between centralization and decentralization of curriculum. 

(Class Activity & Discussion)

A centralized curriculum is when the decisions of content, planning, and implementation of the curriculum is taken by the MoE; thus. it may be more standard, while decentralized allows schools to choose to replace parts or entirety of the national curriculum and localize it based on the school's needs.  


Differentiate between the inductive and deductive process of educational goal development.

(Chapter 7: Developing Vision and Goals p. 103)

*In the deductive process other stakeholders like parents, older students, other citizens, and the community, join in the process.

*In the deductive process each group lists its own tentative set of goals and then it is synthesized.

*In the inductive process, the principal identifies the school's programs and then each subject matter team identifies their goals, and these are combined and reviewed by the entire faculty. 


Provide at least two major tenets of constructivism.

(Chapter 14: Developing Units of Study)

The Basic Principles of Constructivism:

1. Learning is not a passive, receptive process but it is instead an active, meaning-making process.

2. Learning at its best involves conceptual change.

3. Learning is always subjective and personal.

4. Learning is also situated or contextualized.

5. Learning is social.

6. Learning is affective.

7. The nature of the learning task is crucial.

8. Learning is strongly influenced by the learner's development.

9. Learning at its best involves metacognition.


*These are documents, usually in calendar form, that show the units that the teacher will teach through the course of the year. 

*They may also indicate significant events occurring in the school community that will affect teaching and learning and identify the mastery benchmarks to be emphasized.

*They provide a foundation for the more detailed unit plans by translating the curriculum guide into a series of units.

Yearly Plans


Provide at least three current trends in curriculum, instruction and assessment.

(Chapter 2: Some Current Trends in Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment)

1. Digital content and delivery

2. Interest-driven curriculum and increasing personalization

3. Focus on skills


How can the district curriculum leaders evaluate the curriculum?

(Chapter 6: District Curricula)

*Review of the vision statement and the list of educational goals

*Evaluate each curriculum guide once completed

(Criteria provide in p. 93)

*Use a pilot test to evaluate how the new guide actually works in practice

*Evaluate new curriculum during its first year of implementation (teacher surveys & student achievement data)

Name at least one current approach to restructuring programs of study.

(Chapter 8: Rethinking the Program of Studies p. 114)


*Early College High Schools

*Linked Learning Schools

*Breakthrough Models

*Coalition of Essential Schools

*Multiple Intelligences

*The Comer Model (2012)

*Success for All


Define mastery curriculum.

(Chapter 15: Enriching the Curriculum & Remediating Learning)

Mastery curriculum is the core curriculum that is essential for all students, is best learned with a great deal of structure and is likely to be tested. 

*It is the curriculum that the district controls.

*It normally is recommended to require 80% of the students' learning time. 


What do you call "learning that goes beyond and extends the mastery curriculum"?



What are some problems principals face in their curriculum leadership role?

(Chapter 4: Importance of the Principal)

(1) the attitude of "curriculum is not my job"

(2) lack of time

(3) not much help from experts in understanding curriculum leadership


What are the 4C's of 21st century skills (promoted by Idaho Mountain Express, 2016)?

(Chapter 6: District Curricula p. 86)



*Critical thinking



How can you integrate the curriculum? Explain at least one type of integration.

(Chapter 10: Integrating the Curriculum)

*integrating while retaining separate subjects - correlation, skills across the curriculum, unified curriculum, informal integration

*integrating two or more subjects - subject-focused integration, theme focused, project focused

Explain one type of learning remediation. 

(Chapter 15: Enriching the Curriculum & Remediating Learning)

1. On-the-Spot Remediation

2. Systematic Remediation


This is when a class of students stay with the same teacher for two or more years or grade levels. 



List the 5 curriculum levels and explain one of them. 

(Chapter 3: The Five Curriculum Levels)

The five curriculum levels are national, state, district, school, and classroom. 


What are some instructional materials that support a curriculum?

(Chapter 6: District Curricula p. 89)

*Curriculum maps

*Curriculum guides for individual subjects also known as Subject-Specific Frameworks

*Printed and digital textbooks and other resources

*Software and other media


What are the 8 types of curricula? 

(Chapter 11: Aligning the Curriculum p. 153)

*Recommended Curriculum

*Written, overt, or explicit curriculum

*Taught curriculum

*Supported curriculum

*Assessed or tested curriculum

*Learned curriculum

*Hidden or covert curriculum

*The null curriculum


Provide at least 3 factors that account for student learning. 

(Chapter 15: Enriching the Curriculum & Remediating Learning)

*Formative evaluation



*Classroom behavioral

*Comprehension interventions

*Teacher clarity

*Reciprocal teaching



This means developing the curriculum first and then finding a test to match.