DNA
RNA
REPLICATION
TRANSCRIPTION
TRANSLATION
100
What is the shape of DNA?
double helix
100
What shape is RNA in?
Single strand
100
What is being replicated?
DNA
100
What is being used for transcription?
DNA
100
What is the final product of translation?
Protein (a chain of amino acids)
200
What is the complete name for DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
200
What sugar is in RNA?
Ribose
200
What is the base pair rule?
A - T G - C
200
What is DNA transcribed to?
mRNA
200
mRNA is "read" by what organelle?
Ribosomes
300
Replicate this sequence: ATCGCC
TAGCGG
300
Which base can only be found in RNA?
U - uracil
300
What enzyme unzips the DNA double helix?
DNA helicase
300
The basics of transcription requires one base being exchanged for another base. Which bases are being changed? Be specific.
T in DNA is being exchanged for U in RNA
300
What is the function of tRNA?
A tRNA transfers, or brings, an amino acid to the ribosome during translation.
400
What are the three components of a nucleotide?
Phosphate group, sugar, and base (A, T, C, or G)
400
What is a codon?
A sequence of three nucleotides (found on mRNA).
400
What are the three steps to DNA replication?
Step 1: DNA unwinds Step 2: DNA unzips Step 3: bases are added to make a complementary strand
400
In which organelle does transcription take place?
Nucleus
400
What are codons and what do they "code" for? Be specific.
Codons are sequences of three bases made up of (A, G, C, and/or U) on an mRNA strand. Each codon "codes" for an amino acid.
500
Give two reasons why DNA is essential to life.
Any of the following (plus teacher-approved responses): - DNA is an organism's genetic code. - DNA creates genetic diversity. - Without DNA, our cells cannot make proteins. - Our DNA determines our traits.
500
How many codons are needed to specify 6 amino acids?
6
500
Replication is described as a "semi-conservative" process. What does this mean?
When DNA is copied, one strand from the original double helix is kept, and the base sequence on that original strand is used to create a new matching strand from free-floating nucleotides.
500
Why does transcription take place?
DNA cannot leave the nucleus and therefore must be transcribed to mRNA to leave the nucleus.
500
During the translation process, how do we know if a tRNA is the correct one at any given point in time? (Use specific vocabulary, such as codon and anticodon)
For a tRNA to attach to the mRNA strand and transfer its amino acid, the tRNA must have the matching anticodon to the codon being read by the ribosome at that point in time. For example, if the codon reads UAC, then a tRNA with the anticodon AUG will be able to attach.
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