DNA structure
DNA random associated facts
Genes
Gene Code
HONORS chromosomes
100
DNA does 3 main things, list 2 of them.
What is make or code for proteins, direct cell activity, and give an organism its traits.
100
Human beings have this many pairs of chromosomes.
What are 23.
100
A gene is....
...a short segment of DNA that contains the information to encode an RNA molecule or a protein.
100
Transcribe the following sequence of DNA into RNA: TCGACT
AGCUGA
100
These are the proteins that coil with the DNA to help form chromosomes.
What are histones.
200
The base pairing rule states that...
What is A always bonds to T and C always bonds to G.
200
There are this many amino acids.
What are 20.
200
The "central dogma of biology" is....
What is DNA makes RNA makes protein. yo.
200
The amino acid for the RNA sequence AAG
What is Lysine.
200
When DNA is not condensed into chromosomes, it takes this form inside the nucleus of eukaryotes.
What is chromatin.
300
Each nucleotide in the larger DNA molecule consists of these three main parts
What are a phosphate group, a sugar (5-carbon), and nitrogen-containing base.
300
Proteins are responsible for most cellular activity and are made up of these tiny monomers (single units).
What are amino acids.
300
Two ways that RNA is different from DNA.
What is RNA is a single nucleotide chain, and RNA contains U (uracil) instead of T (thymine).
300
The amino acid for the second codon in the RNA sequence AAUCAC
What is Histidine
300
The two identical copies of a single chromosome.
What are sister chromatids.
400
The DNA double-helix is held together by hydrogen bonds formed between what part of the nucleotide?
What is the nitrogen-containing bases.
400
Coil up a single strand of DNA in a eukaryote and you get this structure.
What is a chromosome.
400
These are the "words" of the genetic code.
What are CODONS.
400
Every protein starts with this amino acid.
What is Methionine (Met).
400
Humans have 46 individual chromosomes. Each of these is paired to another chromosome of the same size and shape and each contain the same genes.
What are homologous chromosomes.
500
The names of the four nitrogen containing bases in DNA.
What are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine.
500
A genetic mutation is...
...a change in the "normal" nucleotide sequence of a gene.
500
What is meant by the statement that the genetic code is "universal"?
That all living things follow the DNA to RNA to protein and that each codon codes for the same amino acid in every living thing.
500
There are this many possible codons. Hint: you can do the math to figure it out.
What are 64.
500
A homologous gene is...
...a different gene that codes for the same protein as another gene.
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