Cognitive Views
Complex Cognitive Processes
Constructivism
Social Cognitive Theory
Motivation
100

Which of the following is false regarding the cognitive view of learning?

A. Learning is seen as an internal process.

B. How we perceive is influenced by our own memory.

C. People are generally passive learners.

D. Changes in behaviours reflect a change in knowledge.

C. People are generally passive learners.

100

Which of the following learning strategies does not increase comprehension:

A. Concept Mapping

B. Explaining to a peer

C. Skimming, looking for headings and topic sentences

D. Creating examples

C. Skimming, looking for headings and topic sentences

100

Anthony recently started reading philosophical texts and questions whether there is any truth in the world. This is indicative of the ___________________ perspective.

A. radical constructivism

B. central constructivism

C. individual constructivism

D. social constructivism


A. radical constructivism

100

Social cognitive theory emphasizes

A. observation, modelling, and vicarious reinforcement.

B. ignoring the consequences of others' behaviour.

C. biological influences but not social influences on behaviour.

D. trial-and-error behaviours and schedules of reinforcement.

A. observation, modelling, and vicarious reinforcement.

100

Which of the following best exemplifies intrinsic motivation?

A. Studying really hard to earn an A

B. Going to your job to earn a paycheque

C. Gardening because you like digging in the dirt

D. Working on a community project to get your name in the paper

C. Gardening because you like digging in the dirt

200

What are the three parts of working memory?

A.Central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad

B.Central executive, propositional network, episodic loop

C.Schema, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad

D.Central executive, propositional network, visuospatial sketchpad

A. Central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad

200

Metacognition refers to 

A. knowledge about our own thinking processes.

B. deciding how much time to give to a task and which strategies to use to complete it.

C. making judgments about the processes and outcomes of thinking and learning.

D. transforming and using knowledge, skills, and ideas.

A. knowledge about our own thinking processes.

200

In higher education, the student-teacher experience is a good example of

A. reciprocal teaching.

B. collaboration.

C. a cognitive apprenticeship.

D. cooperative learning.

C. a cognitive apprenticeship.

200

What role does triarchic reciprocal causality play in social cognitive theory?

A. It explains principles of reinforcement.

B. It explains why some behaviours are influenced by genes rather than the environment.

C. It explains the mutual effects of the personal, environmental, and behavioural on each other.

D. It differentiates social learning theory from social cognitive theory.

C. It explains the mutual effects of the personal, environmental, and behavioural on each other.

200

Todd believes that no matter how much effort he puts into his algebra class he will never master word problems. He says to himself, "I just can't do it. Algebra is not one of my strengths." Todd might be classified as

A. failure avoiding.

B. mastery oriented.

C. failure accepting.

D. task-involved.


C. failure accepting.


300

Comprehension should precede memorization, so one of the best strategies for helping your students learn their material is to make it

A. entertaining.

B. meaningful.

C. organized.

D. brief.

B. meaningful.

300

Gary Phye (1992, 2001) identified three stages in developing strategic transfer, including

A. planning phase

B. observation phase

C. acquisition phase

D. evaluation phase

C. acquisition phase

300

Mr. Stein asks his students to decide on the pros and cons of building a theme park in Banff National Park. This class unit is based on a __________________ instructional approach.

A. problem-based learning

B. inquired constructivism

C. spiral curriculum

D. situated learning

A. problem-based learning

300

The fastest way to increase students' sense of self-efficacy is to

A. give them difficult tasks so they will become resilient in the case of failure.

B. use social persuasion or a pep talk: "You can do it!"

C. first increase their self-esteem, which will lead to increases in self-efficacy.

D. ensure they have mastery experiences or personal experiences of success.

D. ensure they have mastery experiences or personal experiences of success.

300

In general, educators and researchers have found that students have an optimal level of arousal. Low levels of arousal are typically best for ______________, whereas high levels of arousal are better for ________________.

A. simple tasks, complex tasks

B. hot cognitive tasks, cold cognitive tasks

C. mastery goals, performance goals

D. complex tasks, simple tasks

D. complex tasks, simple tasks

400

Because we choose what stimuli to attend to in our environment, cognitive theorists claim we

A. are not influenced at all by reinforcements or punishments following our behaviours.

B. are influenced mostly by external stimuli in our environment.

C. are active participants or agents in our own learning process.

D. are not influenced by patterns as initially believed by Gestalt theorists.

C. are active participants or agents in our own learning process.

400

Ms. S is concerned that her students learn strategies but do not apply them when they could or should. This is indicative of

A. undergeneralization.

B. production deficiencies.

C. overgeneralization.

D. utilization errors.

B. production deficiencies.

400

Cognitive apprenticeships involve what on the part of the students?

A. Observational learning, reflection, and exploration in applying what is being learned

B. Exploring alternatives, reviewing outcomes, and selecting options

C.Constructivist learning, modelling, and applying observations

D.Methodical analysis, intuitive exploration, and soliciting feedback from others

A. Observational learning, reflection, and exploration in applying what is being learned

400

Bandura identified four sources of self-efficacy expectations, including

A. socioeconomic status.

B. social persuasion.

C. instruction and feedback.

D. learning styles.

B. social persuasion.

400

A reward ______________, whereas an incentive ______________.

A. decreases behaviour; increases behaviour

B. addresses deficiency needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs; addresses being needs in Maslow's model

C. is based on behaviourist perspectives; is based on a humanist theoretical interpretation

D. is a consequence of a specific behaviour; encourages or discourages a behaviour.

D. is a consequence of a specific behaviour; encourages or discourages a behaviour.

500

Which statement is a possible reason why students might forget the names of the continents?

A. The continents were not properly stored as visual images in the students' memory systems.

B. The information is stuck in the phonological loop of working memory.

C.  Spreading activation overtook the information.

D. Time decay or interference has taken place.

D. Time decay or interference has taken place.

500

One consideration teachers should be aware of in teaching for positive transfer is to

A. provide new problems that can be solved with a different strategy so that students can learn to adjust their problem-solving skills.

B. utilize the lecture form of teaching so that content is covered in a timely fashion.

C. be aware of what the future is likely to hold for students, both as a group and as individuals.

D. teach subjects with attention devoted to having children pass various standardized tests.

A. provide new problems that can be solved with a different strategy so that students can learn to adjust their problem-solving skills.

500

As a new teacher you will be involved in a "community of practice," which means that

A. over time you will learn the accepted practices of your school and district.

B. you will be involved in an apprenticeship where you take on more and more responsibility until you are allowed to function independently.

C. you will be involved in learning about constructivist ways of teaching.

D. you will gain confidence and skill as you practise your teaching.

A. over time you will learn the accepted practices of your school and district.

500

One way teachers can encourage student self-regulation is to

A. create more opportunities for cooperative learning.

B. introduce activities that are challenging and complicated.

C. give students ill-structured problems.

D. provide students with choices about what and how they will learn.

D. provide students with choices about what and how they will learn.

500

The expectancy x value model predicts that motivation will be:

A. high if expectancy is low and value is high.

B. zero only if expectancy is zero and value is zero.

C. high if expectancy is high and value is high.

D. zero if expectancy is high and value is low.

C. high if expectancy is high and value is high.

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