Body Language

Name 4 primary emotions

joy, sadness, anger, trust, surprise, anticipation, trust, disgust


Too much eye contact is considered rude in which country?

Japan or Korea

What is a microexpression? Give an example of one when lying.


What is an eyewitness testimony?

Eyewitness testimony is a statement given by an eyewitness present at the scene of accident or crime


Which memory is known as working memory?

Short term memory


What is a secondary emotion? Give an example. 

Secondary emotions are formed by 2 primary emotions - can vary between cultures. e.g. love, disapproval, etc.


What is an expressive behaviour? Give an example.

Expressive behaviours are emotions that you displayed that are seen by people. e.g. smiling


Which part of the nervous system is activated when lying? Give one example of a physiological change. 

Sympathetic nervous system.

pupils dilated, dry mouth, increased heart rate, increased breathing, inhibited digestion


Explain the weapon focus phenomenon.

Weapon focus phenomenon explains the presence of a weapon in a situation influences memory of the event


Name 2 factors that affect encoding in the process of memory

emotional state and attention


What is a physiological response? Give an example.

Physiological response is a change that occurs within your body. Example increased heart rate, breathing rate.


Describe the difference between verbal cues and paralinguistic cues

Verbal cues are exact words spoken or written and paralinguistic cues are non-verbal e.g. tone of voice, fillers 'um' and 'ahs'


How does a galvanic skin response work in detecting lies?

GSR measures the amount of electric current on the skin that is released when you sweat by using electrodes.


Explain how misleading information can influence someones memory.

Loftus and Palmer's study show how using the word "smashed" can influence how people interpret the speed of a car when crashed.


What is the capacity and duration for sensory memory

Capacity - unlimited

Duration - 0.2-0.4s (iconic) 3-4s (echoic)


Describe Common sense emotional theory. Does it support the facial feedback hypothesis?

Common-sense theory states in the order of:

stimulus --> expressive behaviour --> physiological response. 

No because facial feedback hypothesis states that you feel an emotion (subjective experience) when you practise the expressive behaviour for a period of time. 


What are Paul Ekman's 6 basic emotions that can be recognised universally?

happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise 


Identify 5 cues for lie detection.

high- pitched voice, microexpressions, eye contact, adapters, head movements


Name 2 factors that assist eyewitness.

line-ups, photo identifications, photkits/identikits, artist impressions, mug shots


Explain reconstructive nature of memory and how it can be a factor that influences eyewitness testimony. 

Memory can sometimes be reconstructed based on our personal belief and experiences. 

Example - imagining that the criminal wore a black coat and has a mask on (influenced by criminals seen on tv)


What is cognitive appraisal? Which emotional theory does it support?

Cognitive appraisal is interpreting a situation in an emotive way - Schacter's two factor


Name the 4 Hall's zones of personal space. Give an example for each.

1. Intimate - romantic partner

2. Personal - close friends/ family

3. Social - classmates/ work colleagues

4. Public - strangers


What is the difference between a Control Question Test and the Guilty Knowledge Test?

Control Question test consists of Control questions that are designed to create a baseline of physiological responses - designed to provoke an emotional response when spoken about the incident.

Guilty knowledge test asks MCQ, including the correct answer among alternatives - the test relies on the subject recognising the correct answer.


What is a context-dependent cue? Give an example. 

Context dependent cue is when the person goes back to the original location of where the memory happened to retrieve it. e.g. going back to a crime scene and narrating what happened.


Explain how information can be stored in the long-term memory.

Can information stored in long-term memory be forgotten?

Long-term memory stores information from the short-term memory if the information is rehearsed over time.

Duration and capacity is unlimited but information can be forgotten over time if not used. 

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