Exploration & Colonization 1
Exploration & Colonization 2
Protestant Reformation 1
Protestant Reformation 2
An estate on which cash crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor, often slaves.
What is a plantation?
Navigational innovations that enabled sea exploration of the Old and New Worlds.
What are the astrolabe, magnetic compass, and a variety of ship-building and sailing advances?
This is the cultural and intellectual "rebirth" that began in present-day Italy in the 14th century, rapidly spreading throughout Europe. It is an age during which the culture and learning of classical Greece and Rome were revived and further developed.
What is the (European) Renaissance?
A German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity who found fault in the Catholic Church's beliefs, practices, and traditions.
Who is Martin Luther?
(In the Roman Catholic Church) a grant by the pope of the forgiveness of sins, the unrestricted sale of which by priests and pardoners was a widespread abuse during the later Middle Ages.
What is an indulgence?
The sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies. Millions died en route.
What is the Middle Passage?
The "three-legged" trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that involved shipping manufactured goods from Europe to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves, these slaves being shipped to the West Indies and exchanged for sugar, rum, and other commodities, which were in turn shipped back to Europe.
What is the Triangular Trade?
Like the Internet, this innovation was revolutionary in that it made information (texts) available to a wider audience thereby allowing for the diffusion of knowledge and learning and increasing rates of literacy.
What is the printing press (or movable-type printing)?
The buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges (e.g. church offices or positions).
What is simony?
Written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. The disputation protests against clerical abuses, especially nepotism, simony, usury, pluralism, and the sale of indulgences.
What are the Ninety-Five Theses?
The widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable diseases, technology and ideas between the American (New World) and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres (Old World) following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
What is the Columbian Exchange?
The ways in which human populations shifted as a consequence of the "discovery," exploration, and colonization of the New World (the Americas).
What is population reductions among Africans (due to slavery) and Native Americans (due to disease) and the migration of European populations (due to colonization) and Africans (due to slavery) to the New World (the Americas)?
Without these individuals who gave financial support, many great works of art, sculpture, and literature may never have been produced.
Who are Patrons?
The divine foreordaining of all that will happen, especially with regard to the salvation of some and not others. Put more simply, it is the idea that God determines your fate (e.g. Heaven or Hell) before you're even born. It is associated with John Calvin (Calvinists) and the Puritans, among others.
What is predestination?
The English King who created the Church of England (Anglican Church) and put himself in charge of it so that he could get a divorce after the Pope refused to annul his marriage.
Who is Henry VIII?
Also called "commercialism,” a system in which a country attempts to amass wealth through colonization and trade with other countries, exporting more than it imports and increasing stores of gold and precious metals.
What is mercantilism?
An economic system that features private ownership of the means of production (such as factories, offices, and shipping enterprises) and the means by which income and profit are distributed. It emerged during the Age of Exploration and Colonization as companies such as the Dutch East India Company became wealthy and influential.
What is capitalism?
The original "Renaissance Man," he was a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal.
Who is Leonardo da Vinci?
The period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648) that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It addressed contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Ultimately, the basic structure of the Medieval Church, its sacramental system, religious orders, and doctrine was upheld. It rejected all compromise with the Protestants, restating basic tenets of the Roman Catholic faith.
What is the Counter-Reformation?
An ecclesiastical tribunal established by Pope Gregory IX circa 1232 for the suppression of heresy--belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (especially Christian) doctrine. It was notorious for the use of torture. In 1542 it was re-established to combat Protestantism.
What is the Inquisition?
A grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist (e.g. governor) in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.
What is encomienda (or the Encomienda System)?
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) settled a dispute and divided land between these two European kingdoms along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). It benefited one kingdom in particular, as neither party knew the true size of the newly "discovered" Americas.
What are Spain and Portugal?
An outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems. During the Renaissance it was a cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
What is humanism?
In medieval Spain and Portugal, a series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims (Moors), who had occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th century. It was completed shortly before the Reformation began.
What is the Reconquista (Reconquest)?
This Catholic order of priests was zealous in opposing the Reformation. Among other duties, the ministry was charged with establishing missions and educational institutions to spread Catholicism.
What is the Jesuit ministry (or the Jesuits)?
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