Absolute & Enlightened Despots (Monarchs)
Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
Industrial & Agricultural Revolution
French Revolution
The doctrine that kings and queens have a God-given right to rule and that rebellion against them is a sin. This belief was common through the seventeenth century and was urged by such kings as Louis XIV of France.
What is divine right?
This model of the known universe posited that the Earth revolved around the sun, not the other way around as the Church insisted; it was first proclaimed by Copernicus and later proven by Galileo.
What is a heliocentric model?
Inalienable rights, including life, liberty, and property (or pursuit of happiness), that John Locke (and Thomas Jefferson) advocated for.
What are natural rights?
New practices and technologies that contributed to the Industrial Revolution.
What are textiles (mechanized spinning of cotton), steam power (steam engines for trains and ships), iron production (coke in lieu of charcoal), railroads, assembly lines, etc.?
The Three Estates that existed in France prior to its 1789 revolution.
What are the First (clergy), Second (nobility), and Third (everyone else) Estates?
The principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government.
What is absolutism?
This powerful medieval church resisted many of the advances and claims of the Scientific Revolution, often charging scientists and others with heresy; some were subjected to inquisition, others to house arrest; still others were executed.
What is the Catholic Church?
Ideas (incorporated into our Constitution) advocated by Baron de Montesquieu that would limit the power of government.
What are the "separation of powers" (i.e. 3 branches) and "checks and balances"?
New farming practices and technologies that contributed to the Agricultural Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries.
What are crop rotation, the iron plow (with interchangeable parts), the cotton gin, mechanized reapers and harvesters, grain elevators, and, ultimately, steam-powered tractors, etc.
The only French estate (or class) to pay taxes.
What is the Third Estate?
These despots (or monarchs) were intolerant of religious difference (encouraging and legalizing religious persecution) and cared not a whit for the rights of those under their rule. They tended to rule with an "iron fist."
What are absolute despots (or monarchs)?
This method which consists of systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses was developed by Bacon, Descartes, and Newton (among others) during the Scientific Revolution.
What is the scientific method?
The First Amendment freedom that Voltaire argued in favor of.
What is free speech?
Effect of Industrial Revolution on European populations.
What is urbanization (moving to the city for factory jobs)?
A French legislative body called by Louis XVI that included all three French Estates. It was not interested in an overhaul of the French social, economic, and political systems.
What is the Estates General?
These despots (or monarchs) were, in general, tolerant of religious difference; most sought economic and educational reforms; some went so far as to abolish serfdom. They tended to rule as benevolent (well-meaning) dictators.
What are enlightened despots (or monarchs)?
He developed calculus to mathematically explain the laws of motion and the force of gravity.
Who is Sir Isaac Newton?
Enlightenment ideas and ideals inspired these revolutions.
What are the American, French, Haitian, Latin American, and European (1830 and 1848) revolutions?
Effect of Agricultural Revolution on European populations.
What are a population boom (more food = more babies), the disappearance of small farms, and a loss of farming jobs (people move to cities)?
This French legislative body comprised mostly of the Third Estate raised revenue to pay France's debt by confiscating and selling land belonging to the clergy and to nobility (the aristocracy).
What is the National Convention?
A series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. Initially, religion was a motivation for war as Protestant and Catholic states fought even though many of them were or had been members of the Holy Roman Empire, which split apart as a consequence.
What is the Thirty Years' War?
He relied on the data collected by Tycho Brahe to develop the laws of planetary motion.
Who is Johannes Kepler?
This French philosophe argued that the power of government comes from the consent of the governed (popular sovereignty) based on a social contract between people and governments.
Who is Jean Jacques Rousseau?
Reasons some countries "industrialized" before others.
What are natural resources (namely iron and coal), capital investment (money and capital goods), education (science and engineering), etc.?
The French radical Maximilien Robespierre ordered thousands of executions (mostly by guillotine) literally causing the streets to run red with blood during this "reign." Ironically, he too was executed by guillotine.
What is the Reign of Terror?
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