The French Revolution
Napoleon Bonaparte
The Enlightenment
The Scientific Revolution
Absolutism and Constitutionalism

Who was Louis XVI?

King of France during the French Revolution.

“Louis the Great."

His reign was marked by economic difficulties, financial crisis, and social unrest, which eventually led to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. The revolutionaries held Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette responsible for the economic hardships and social inequality in France. 

He was eventually executed. 


What Island was Napoleon born on?



Define “The Enlightenment"

The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement that dominated in Europe during the 18th century, was centered around the idea that reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and advocated such ideals as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state.


What was Nicolaus Copernicus famous for?

formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center.


Define “absolutism"

a political system in which a single monarch, usually a king or queen, holds complete and unrestrained power over a country.


What was the Tennis Court Oath?

After the refusal of King Louis XVI to address their grievances, representatives of the Third Estate (commoners) gathered on the tennis court. They pledged not to disband until a new constitution for France was established, marking a symbolic act of defiance against the absolute monarchy.


What was Napoleon’s title when he became head of the new government in France (the Consulate)

The Consul (the government executive and a military leader). 


What is Deism?

belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe. 
The term was used during the enlightenment movement of the 17th and 18th centuries, that accepted the existence of a creator on the basis of reason but rejected belief in a supernatural deity who interacts with humankind.


What was Isaac Newton famous for?

developed the Newton’s Laws of Motion: 

In the first law, an object will not change its motion unless a force acts on it. In the second law, the force on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration. In the third law, when two objects interact, they apply forces to each other of equal magnitude and opposite direction.


Define “constitutionalism"

the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it


What was the Reign of Terror, during the French Revolution?

a period during the French Revolution, from 1793 to 1794, characterized by extreme political violence, mass executions, and heightened political repression. It emerged in the aftermath of the radical Jacobin faction taking control of the government. Led by figures like Maximilien Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety, and the Revolutionary Tribunal, the Reign of Terror aimed to eliminate perceived enemies of the revolution, both internal and external.


What were the two things Napoleon did that give him Military success?

1. Mass and Mobility:

  • Napoleon was able to move his troops quicker than other generals. 

  • Drastically cut down the amount of supplies his troops needed by telling them to live off the land.  

  • So, his men moved quicker because they were not burdened by large heavy amounts of supplies. 

  • This gave them an advantage over the enemy. 

2. Cartography:

  • Napoleon was able to look at a piece of ground or his map and see pieces in a giant chess game that he could use. 

  • Pick good ground and win brilliant victories, this way. 


What were some of the ideas of John Locke?

Locke believed in the existence of natural rights, which he identified as life, liberty, and property. 

Locke introduced the idea of a social contract as the basis for legitimate government. According to him, individuals come together in a social contract to form a political society and establish a government to protect their natural rights. 

Locke advocated for the concept of limited government. 

Locke's views on property were influential in shaping economic thought. He asserted that individuals have a natural right to private property acquired through labor.


What is Geocentric Cosmology?

In this model, the Earth is the the centre of the Universe and all the planets and stars revolve around it.


Who was Henry of Navarre (r.1589-1610)

First of the Bourbon kings/Bourbon dynasty in France

Henry came to power during the Wars of Religion

Henry was Protestant (only Protestant king of France ever)

Issues the Edict of Nantes which granted religious toleration to the Protestants and ended the Wars of Religion.


Who were the Jacobins?

Members of a political club during the French Revolution.

They played a crucial role in the radical phase of the revolution, particularly during the period known as the Reign of Terror (1793-1794). Led by figures like Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Danton, and Jean-Paul Marat, the Jacobins were associated with revolutionary fervor, social justice, and the pursuit of democratic ideals. 

They also led the execution of King Louis XVI. 


What were the reforms under Napoleon?

The Napoleonic Code: a comprehensive legal code introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804.

Napoleon implemented reforms in education to create a more standardized and merit-based system. 

Napoleon implemented financial reforms to stabilize the economy and fund his military campaigns. He introduced a more efficient tax system, the Franc as the new currency.

Seeking to reconcile with the Catholic Church after the anti-religious policies of the French Revolution, Napoleon signed the Concordat with Pope Pius VII. This agreement recognized Catholicism as the majority religion in France but also affirmed religious freedom.  


What were some of the ideas of Voltaire?

Voltaire criticized religious intolerance and the abuses of the Catholic Church. He advocated for religious tolerance and believed that individuals should have the freedom to practice their own religion without fear of persecution. 

Voltaire valued reason and empiricism, advocating for the application of scientific principles to understand the world. 

Voltaire was also a big advocate for freedom of thought and expression.


What are epicycles?

In ancient astronomy, the epicycle was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. 

The idea was that planets moved in a combination of circular motions, with the epicycle riding along the larger circle, which itself moved around the Earth.


Who was James I (r.1603-1625)

King of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

Commissioned the translation of the Bible into English.

Union of the Crowns, as James became the first monarch to rule both England and Scotland.


Who were the Girondists?

the Girondists favored the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. 

the Girondists advocated for a more moderate form of republicanism compared to the radical Jacobins. 

The Girondists were not led by a single individual.


What was the Congress of Vienna?

The Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815 was a series of international diplomatic meetings to discuss and agree upon a possible new layout of the European political and constitutional order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.


What are the (four) general characteristics of the Enlightenment?

a. Reason

b. Scientific Method

c. Belief in Progress

d. Deism


What was Johannes Kepler famous for?

discovered that the Earth and planets travel about the sun in elliptical orbits. He gave three fundamental laws of planetary motion.


Who was Charles I (r.1625-1649)

Charles I of England is most famous for his conflict with Parliament, which eventually led to the English Civil War and his execution. 

The conflict between Charles I and Parliament escalated into the English Civil War. The Royalists (Cavaliers) loyal to the king fought against the Parliamentarians (Roundheads).