Health Disparities/Chronic Disease Overview & Health Promotion
Tobacco History & Policy Milestones/Tobacco Challenges & Disparities
Nutrition/Physical Activity
Family Planning & Maternal/Child Health
Access to Health Care/Healthy People 2030

What is to compress
(make smaller) the time
between the onset of chronic
illness or disability and the
time in which a person dies known as?

Compression of morbidity


This established 18 as the minimum age to purchase tobacco. Required states to enact and enforce laws prohibiting any manufacturer, retailers, or distributor from selling or distributing tobacco products to individuals under the age of 18.

1992: Synar Amendment


The CDC recommends children to have how much exercise per day?

60 minutes or more daily (mix of moderate and vigorous aerobic activity, muscle strengthening, bone strengthening)


A woman who has given birth 5 or more times

Grand multiparity


Explain a key barrier to health care access

Provider availability:
 Shortages
 Transportation
 Work
 Language
 Culture
 Trust
 Education/health literacy
 Income/finances
 Insufficient insurance coverage
 Stigma and bias among medical


Give an example of the Access strategy are in the MAPPS for Health Promotion

Improve nutritional content through policies, guidelines or standards (in schools, worksites, hospitals, etc.) SNAP, food banks, eliminate food swamps/food deserts, etc. 


Damage to _____ and irritation of respiratory tract lining by components of smoke increase susceptibility to infectious diseases.



What is an example of a Support MAPPS strategy for promoting nutrition?

Weight watchers, free rides to grocery store (from campus or for elderly), food drives, healthy eating with friends/family, Nevada 211


This is the most public health-oriented kind of care the medical professional provides

Prenatal care

(It provides women with information. Problems are diagnosed early. Poor women are often linked with social services)


What is it called where most people lack adequate access to pharmacies, primary care providers, hospitals, hospital beds, trauma centers, and/or low-cost health centers?

Health care desert


This is known as unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust differences between the health or healthcare of different people. They are are unfair inequalities in people’s health due to their social status.



One of the most effective measures to discourage young people from smoking = what?

raise tax on cigarettes


Explain a way we can reduce the prevalence of a food swamp.

Counties could introduce zoning restrictions that would reduce the number of fast-food joints while simultaneously increasing the number of grocery store


If a woman has a baby today and then has another (full-term) baby 4 years from today, what was
the inter-pregnancy interval (IPI) (in months)?

answer: 39 months

(12 months x 4 years = 48 months)

(48 months - 9 months = 39 months IPI)


Explain the reasoning/importance of having Healthy People 2030

“The Healthy People Initiative is designed to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health of the nation.”

Healthy People 2030 provides hundreds of evidence-based resources to help you address public health priorities.”

• “Social determinants of health have a major impact on people's health and well-being — and they're a key focus of Healthy People 2030.”

• “Healthy People 2030’s disparities data feature allows you to track changes in disparities to see where we’re improving as a nation — and where we need to increase our efforts.”

• “Healthy People 2030 includes 359 core — or measurable — objectives as well as developmental and research objectives.”


Explain how socioeconomic status (SES) and stress are related

“Families with a low socioeconomic status (SES) are
deprived in multiple ways and suffer from a higher
number of stressors related to finances, social relations, employment situations and health complaints than those with a high SES.”
“Low SES relates to a higher burden in different areas of everyday life and an exposure to stressful life situations."


Explain why the marketing of menthol cigarettes toward African Americans is a social justice issue. (this is a health disparity, too!)

The tobacco industry has saturated the African-American community with provocative advertising, free cigarette-giveaways, and cheaper prices to ensure that their products were disproportionately consumed by African-Americans.


What did our textbook say could reverse public health improvements that were achieved in the 20th century?

Overweight and obesity. (life expectancy will decline due to obesity)


Explain one of public health's approaches to family planning

Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE), Long-acting reversible contraceptions (LARC), Title X


Explain what the provisions and regulations of the ACA are

Provisions (what is provided by ACA):

• Children can stay on a parent’s insurance plan until age 26. Many preventive services are free to insured patients. Medicare prescription drug coverage is more affordable. States can opt to receive federal funds for expansion of Medicaid programs to uninsured.

• Regulations (basically rules made by ACA):

• Individual mandate is that you must have health insurance or pay a fine. (Mandate was abolished in 2017, so no longer federal penalty.) Large business (50 or more employees) must pay assessment to IRS if they do not insure employees.

• (Still regulations): Insurance companies cannot: Have lifetime limits on health coverage. Cancel policies of patients when medical costs rise. Spend too much on administrative costs or profits

Explain what the epidemiologic transition is

Changing patterns of population distributions in
relation to changing patterns of mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and leading causes of death. As deaths from famine and infectious diseases (communicable) decreased, and life expectancy increased, the burden of disease has shifted to chronic, noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Changes in population growth trajectories and


Explain some programs/things that the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) accomplished.

Truth Campaign, billions of dollars to states, restrictions on advertising, Quit Line. It prohibits brand name merchandise, marketing to youth (use of cartoons in ads), sponsorship of concerts, outdoor ads and transit ads


Explain the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity.

Children with a low SES spend less time being physically active during leisure time and engage in less vigorous intensity activities compared to their peers of high SES

• Children from lower SES communities lack available resources because of environmental factors

• Neighborhood: Is it safe? Is there crime affecting ability to play outside?

• Quality and accessibility of parks, sidewalks, yards, etc.

• Parent’s ability to promote physical activity in children: Working hours, Knowledge/education, Time, Financial ability to pay for sports (teams, fees, transportation, time, etc.)

• The higher the SES, the higher the sport participation


What are the risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), childbirth injury, maternal mortality, and infant mortality?

grand multiparity, short inter-pregnancy interval, late/inadequate prenatal care


Explain what the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) is

Anyone who has an emergency must be treated or stabilized, regardless of their insurance status or ability to pay. “Hospitals are then required to provide stabilizing treatment for patients with emergency medical conditions.”

EMTALA leads to cost-shifting:

 Cost shifting occurs when a hospital/health-care provider charges an insured patient more than it does an uninsured patient for the same procedure/service

 Thus, people with health insurance pay for the financial loss hospitals incur when they provide services to people without insurance or people with Medicaid/Medicare

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