What were the characteristics of the two samples within the Pozzulo et al case study?

Children: Age range from 4-7 (mean 4.98), selected from either Pre-K or Kindergarten from 3 private schools

Adults: Age range from 17-30 (Mean 20.54), selected from Intro. Pysch. Participant Pools from Eastern Ontario University


What was the experimental design and why was it important?

The experimental design was a laboratory experiment and it was important because it allowed the experiment to be very standardised resulting in higher replicability. 


The reliability of children in real life police line ups is what and why.

What is low reliability, they are more likely to make errors. 


Was the use of 2D animation and 3D humans in the procedure a strength or a weakness?



Personal information pertaining to the kids where not mentioned in the case study. 



In what ways was the generalisability affected negatively by certain aspects of the sampling

The adult participants being selected out of a participant pool, as these individuals might be more eager or advantageous throughout the experiment,

Children participants being selected out of only 3 private schools in Canada which lowers the diversity and generalization to the general population


How long were the videos of the human and cartoon face targets on screen for?

-6 seconds


The result of improving child witness information.

What is court rulings that are based on children’s testimonies would raise in quality.


Which experimental design uses in the procedure makes the study more valid?

Repeated measures design.


The children were allowed to leave at any time. 

Right to withdraw


How did the experiment of the Pozzulo et al case generalize to the two samples selected, and why were these participants chosen?

The children were selected as the aim of the study was to evaluate the social vs cognitive effects on children's performances as eyewitnesses, so the sample consisting of young evolving children was required 

Adults were implemented as a control group to compare the scores of the children sample to see the range between the correct/incorrect results


Videos and photo-arrays were presented to the participants on _________?

-a 13 inch laptop screen


Why is it helpful for police to know how memory works when someone sees a crime?

It helps police understand how witnesses remember what they saw, making it easier to trust their statements.


What was added to the photo line-up and why does it make the study more valid?

Foils; reduces subjectivity.


Legal guardians and children alike all agreed on partaking in the experiment. 

Informed consent


Due to the laboratory setting, participants did not experience the emotional or physical intensity of a "real criminal line-up", this decreases what factor?

The Ecological Validity, a subset of external validity, as the participants didn't experience the pressure (emotionally/physically) and the importance of a genuine criminal line up


What colors were the photographs shown to the participants and why?

-The photographs were black and white. It is important because bright colors of the cartoon characters could have become the focus instead of recognition. 


What can we learn from studying how adults and kids recognize faces in lineups?

Studying how people recognize faces helps police know if someone's identification is reliable or if it's influenced by other factors.


How was the DV measured in the target present and target absent line-up?

How often the adults and children identified the target correctly or incorrectly was recorded in a data table as percentages. 


Fatigue, anxiety and stress were monitered in the children. 

Protection from physical harm


What was a special condition that the sample, particularly the children, had to be familiar with before entering the experiment?

Both the adult sample and the parents/guardians of the child sample, ensure the familiarity of the two target cartoons (Go, Diego,Go/Dora the Explorer)


What 2 things did the researchers change when testing the children v/s the adults?

-the researchers did not interact/play with the adults before the experiments

-the children pointed to their answers whereas the adults had to write their answers down


Why do police need to think about social pressures and how our brains work when they talk to witnesses?

Thinking about social pressures and how our brains work helps police ask questions in a way that gets accurate information from witnesses, making investigations more reliable.


What actions were taken in the experiment to prevent the unintentional influence of confounding variables?

The IV was operationalized into 3 parts: Age, nature of targets faces, and type of line-up. The procedure for each level of the IV was outlined in great detail.


Children who may have been victims of crimes during the experiment risked them lacking.. 

Protection from mental harm