Ancient Greece
Ancient Rome
Middle Ages Europe
Non-Western World
Trade

100

Greeks worshiped numerous gods and goddesses, a religious practice known as this.
What is polytheism?

100

This law-making body survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BCE, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BCE, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 CE, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 CE, and barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. In fact, it continued to function in the West Roman Empire until 603 CE. (The upper house of Congress is named for it.)
What is the Senate?

100

During the European middle ages, this religious institution and its pope held more power than kings and queens.
What is the Catholic Church?

100

These fearless raiders and horsemen, united by Genghis Khan, established the largest empire the world has ever known, spreading from the Pacific in the east to Central Europe in the west ; it even proclaimed dynastic rule (Yuan Dynasty) in China for a spell.
What is the Mongol Empire?

100

This series of trade routes connected Europe to the Middle East and to China and the Indian subcontinent, allowing for the spice trade to flourish.
What is the Silk Road?

200

This militaristic city-state, which trained boys and girls alike, first fought with Athens as an ally in the Persian Wars and later against Athens as an enemy in the Peloponnesian Wars.
What is Sparta?

200

During the Roman Republic (509 - 27 BCE), this type of ruler exercised absolute power for only 6 months in times of crisis; however, Julius Caesar effectively ended the Republic and ruled as this for over 4 years until his assassination.
What is a dictator?

200

A series of military expeditions during the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries in which European Christians sought to recover the Holy Land from Muslims (though many fought for land and wealth alone).
What are the Crusades?

200

During the Middle Ages a feudal system--in which an emperor held sway over a warrior class (shoguns, diamyos, samurai, and ronin) who fought for the lands serviced by peasants, merchants, and artisans--existed here.
What is Japan?

200

Most of the medieval overland trade routes were controlled by this religious group which was one reason Europeans later sought sea routes to China and India.
What are Muslims?

300

Statesman, orator, and general during Athens' Golden Age, he expanded citizens' rights and encouraged direct democracy, in which the people directly participate in government and legislation.
Who is Pericles?

300

In Latin, this means a “thing of the people”, a form of government in which elected officials represent the people (Ancient Rome existed as such between 509 and 27 BCE and the United States exists as such today).
What is a republic (or representative democracy)?

300

These innovations led to an "agricultural revolution" in medieval Europe.
What are the iron plow, harnesses and yokes, and crop rotation?

300

This trans-Saharan trade--established between the Berbers of North Africa and the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay--peaked under the rule of Mansa Musa and led directly to the spread of Islam.
What is the gold-salt trade?

300

Increased trade, leads to trading posts, merchants and markets, and ultimately these urban centers.
What are cities?

400

The Council of 500, created by Cleisthenes in 507 BCE, is a law-making body, not unlike Congress, known is this.
What is a legislature (or legislative body)?

400

The collective name for the "foreign, strange, ignorant" Germanic tribes, including the Visigoths and Vandals that sacked Rome, leading to the fall of the (Western) Roman Empire in 476 CE.
What are barbarians?

400

The European socio-economic hierarchy that existed for centuries in which a pope or the Church had power over kings who granted land (manors or fiefs) to lords who employed knights to protect serfs (and, more important, power and wealth). The Black Death (bubonic plague) contributed to its decline.
What is feudalism (or the feudal system)?

400

Scholars of this religion preserved the science and culture of classical Greece and Rome, established libraries, and invented algebra and the Arabic numerals we use today while much of Europe descended into the Dark Ages following the fall of Rome.
What is Islam?

400

The "spread" of goods (e.g. silk and spices), culture (religion, language, art), animals, plants, disease, ideas and people.
What is diffusion?

500

Western philosophical thought is rooted in the teachings of these 3 who insisted knowledge is acquired through questioning and "rational thought" and who established the Academies and Lyceums to educate greater numbers of students.
Who are Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle?

500

This Roman emperor's conversion to Christianity in the 4th century allowed it to spread throughout the Roman empire and become the world's most common religion.
Who is Constantine?

500

The "great charter" signed by King John in 1215 that granted legal and trading rights to nobles and limited the power of kings (it is the basis of English common law and the rule of law).
What is the Magna Carta?

500

A religious "schism" resulted in the formation of an (Eastern) Orthodox Church that peaked during the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire); but in 1453, many converted to Islam when conquered by this Muslim empire.
What is the Ottoman Empire?

500

A Muslim known for his extensive travels during the 1300s, the accounts of which were published in the Rihla. (His accounts are far more reliable than Marco Polo's.)
Who is Ibn Battuta?