Khwarazmian Empire

It was Officiall founded in 1077. It was Founded by Anush Gharchar. The main emperor was Shah Ala ad Din Muhammad,
He widened the empire alot until he came across the Mongols and resulted In a sad fall to these empires. 


Ming Voyage

It consisted of 7 voyages over a 28 year period during 1405-33 AD. it would occur along the traditional sea roads trade routes. Zhang He led as a trusted servant to be admiral. They used ships that were 400ft ships constructed 4x as large as ships which brought Colombus to the Americas. There was no permanent colonies established and trade routes in effect. The purpose was to attempt to re-establish ritutalized ties of tribute on grander scale. They used silk, jade, and cermamics to impress foreigners. 


Danse Macabre

He had the realization that death comes for all , rich, and poor alike. This was popular during during the black death plague which is a big depiction of where the saying come from. It influnced the death during the plague. The big idea was short life, sudden death.


Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

Rationalist philosophy, he made major contributions in law, math, and medicine. It was translated and commented on widely by Aristotle. Europeans regained access to the thinking of that ancient philosopher. A long time European scholars defined themselves as "Averrosist."


Grand Canal

A main import for transporting goods, and trading. It was a more efficient way of transporting these things. It connected different regions, in which communication could increase. It was then used by many different Chinese dynasties, and was a big symbol for Chinese history.


The Yuan Dynasty

Mongol Dynasty inititaed by Khubilai Khan that ruled China from 1271 to 1368. Khubilai was the founder of this dynasty. It was part of the Mongol Empire. The mongols ruled over china. Soon enough the Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the Ming Dynasty


The Battle of Tours

It was fought in 732 AD. It was led by Charles Martel. It defeated the Islamic Ummayyad Army. The whole point was to Islam from going North. The conflict was between both leaders. The Ummayyads wanted more territory in Western Europe, but the Franks wanted to defend their land. 


The Mongol Nerge

Laws/rules that were set by Genghis Khan. He wanted to keep things in order and up to date to code. Some laws and rules were about things like property, land, trade, etc. The laws wanted discipline between everybody.



Rulers of an empire in the Mongols and Turks people. They played a big role in politics for these empires. They were in charge of these empires. They were in charge of making decisions, leading the military, and holding authority.



The Eastern Orthodox Church was tied to the Byzantine State. In Byzantium, the emperor assumed something of the role of both "Caesar" as head of state and the pope (head of the church). Sometimes made decisions about doctrine; called church councils into sessions; and genuinely treated the Church as a government department. 


The Battle of Milvian Bridge

It took place in 312 AD and was run by Constantine. He wanted the Roman Empire and took many vile conflicts to receive it. Both Constantine and Maxentius fought for it but in the end, Constantine won and claimed Emperor of Western ROMAN EMPIRE. 

Kanishka Casket

It's from the Kushan Empire in and 3rd century. It shows the engravings of the daily life of a Buddha. It shows the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Road. The significance is huge in showing the culture and art of Buddhism in the Kushan Empire.



A relgion leader in Islam. It could also be a political or spirtial. The defintioin is a successor. Which is considered a successor to Prophet Muhammed. It impacted the development of Islamic Civilization


Council of Nicaea

It sought to define an orthodox or correct position on those who disagreed as anathema and expel them from the church. It was during 325 CE. It was convened by Emperor Constantine. 


Great Anti-Buddhist Persuction

This occurred during the Tang dynasty. It was the decline in the influence of Buddhism. They banned rituals and ceremonies of Buddhists practice. they confiscated wealth and property. There were no longer nuns nor monks because temples were destroyed, It didn't end up being permanent and Buddhism in China still continued/


Sogdians Letters

Sogdians dominated the Silk Road trade, and their language became a medium of communication all along. The letters were used for things such as business orders, contacting family members, and merchant use. They give us more of a view of how their life was lived, and the language they spoke/wrote in. They would be delivered by other people, or on animals. Usually were trusted friends or trusted messengers.


Zhang Qian, Envoy of Han China

He was a part of the Han dynasty. He is known to be the one who began the Silk Road and explored Central Asia. He was sent over by the emperor to make alliances and explore regions. The significance was huge for China during the 2nd century BCE, it opened the Silk Road which enabled trade. More area in West China was discovered.

Nestorian Church 

It was made in 635 AD by a Persian Missionary Monk which has taken approval by the Tang Dynasty rulers. The art and literature articulated the Christian message using Buddhist and Daoist concepts. Unfortunately towards the end of the Tang dynasty, it slowly started to fade away. 



The 8th and 10th centuries had Hindu temples and Buddhist monuments. The most famous monument is the Borobudur which is an enormous mountain-shaped structure. It had ten levels with a three-mile walkway and elaborate carvings illustrating, the spiritual journey from ignorance and illusion to full enlightenment. It represents the process of Buddhism becoming culturally grounded in a new place.

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