Scientific Design
Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
Bacteria & Virus
How many variables are changed in a controlled experiment?
one- the independent variable
What is the smallest chemical unit of a pure substance?
an atom
How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells?
prokaryotic lack membrane bound organelles and a nucleus and eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus.
Where does life get all its energy from?
the sun
What is a plasmid and where are they found?
small circular piece of DNA found in the bacteria cell. Often carries the genetic information for antibiotic resistance.
What is the purpose of a control group in an experiment?
To use as a comparison with the experimental group
What is an isotope?
an alternate version of an atom in which the number of protons are the same BUT the number of neutrons is a different amount. Carbon-12 and Carbon-14
How are the lipids found in the cell membrane held together?
due to the hydrophobic interactions of the phospholipid tails
What is a pigment?
a molecule that can absorb specific wavelengths of light. If a pigment is unable to absorb a wavelength of light then it will reflect that wavelength which we see as color. Example, id a plant reflects the green yellow wavelength, we see the plant as a green-yellow color.
What is a bacteriophage?
A virus that infects bacteria
Explain the difference between a theory and a hypothesis.
a theory broad in scope and widely supported and a hypothesis is a prediction about a specific situation
What is an ion?
a charged atom due to the fact that an atom has either lost or gained an electron.
Define diffusion and active transport.
diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration (down the concentration gradient) without the use of energy. Active transport is the movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to high concentration (up the concentration gradient) and require the use of energy.
What is the result of the water splitting photosystem?
water is split to provide a low energy electron to the specialized chlorophyll molecule that was lost and sent to the ETC. Oxygen gas is released from the plant and into the atmosphere. Hydrogen ions are used in creating the concentration gradient used in the ETC to produce ATP.
How does a virus determine which type of organism it is going to infect?
the glycoproteins located on the surface of a virus
The X axis and Y axis represent which variables in a controlled experiment.
X axis is the independent variable and the Y axis is the dependent variable
What is the purpose of enzymes? How is there function determined?
the purpose of the an enzyme is to speed up chemical reactions (catalyst). The function of an enzyme is determined by it's shape which is determined by the amino acid sequence. Enzymes are proteins.
Where are the components of the cell membrane synthesized? explain the specific organelles function.
rough ER- synthesize the protein portions and the smooth ER would synthesize the lipid portions
Where does the light reaction take place and what are the products? Where does the Calvin Cycle take place and what are the products?
LIGHT- Thylakoid (oxygen, ATP and NADPH) CALVIN- Stroma (glucose)
How are bacteria transmitted, prevented and treated?
Bacteria can be transmitted through air (water droplet-sneeze/cough)or touching a surface that is contaminated by the organism. In order to prevent infection a person should wash hands and surfaces, put food in the refrigerator to slow growth and can use probiotics in their diet. If a person becomes infected, they may take antibiotics as a treatment. The antibiotics will work against bacteria not viruses.
What is the proper format for a hypothesis?
If (independent variable) is related to the (dependent variable) then (prediction of outcome) because (basis for prediction).
What is hydrophobic and hydrophilic?
Hydrophobic is "water fearing" such as the tail of a phospholipid. Hydrophilic is "water loving" which the head region of a phospholipid.
What products of the light reaction (synthesis reaction)are used in the Calvin cycle (synthesis reaction)and what is the specific purpose in the Calvin cycle?
NADPH and ATP are produced in the light reaction and used in the Calvin Cycle to break the newly formed 6-carbon sugar (formed as a result of carbon fixation) in half to form two 3-carbon molecules known as G3P which will be used for sugar creation (glucose)and regeneration of the 5-carbon molecule used in the fixation step.
If the double membrane structure of a chloroplast had a whole in it, what would happen to the process of photosynthesis?
No ATP would be produced to go onto the Calvin Cycle.
What is a retrovirus and how easy are they to treat?
A retrovirus is an RNA containing virus. The virus is difficult to treat since RNA viruses mutate quickly and make them more difficult to treat than DNA containing viruses.
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