Experiments
Observations
Interviews
Case Studies
Thinking Critically

100

The group of participants in a study


Sample

100

The type of observation where the researcher takes part in activities with the participants in their usual environment and the participants do know they are being observed


A naturalistic, overt participant observation. 

100

What is it called when I want to do an interview of 8 IB Psych students at once rather than individually?

Focus Group

100

What does it mean to use multiple methods to investigate the one phenomena - a strength of case studies 


Triangulation 

100

When a participant acts in a specific way to avoid looking bad, dishonest or unpatriotic in front of the researcher.


Social Desirability Effect. 

200

The problem that arises when the controls are so good that the researcher can no longer predict behaviour in a natural environment.

Low ecological validity.

200

Describe, using 3 key words of observation, Festinger's classic Dooms Day cult study

Participant, covert, naturalistic 

200


What is the difference between a semi-structured interview and a narrative interview?


A narrative interview asks only one guiding question – and then only seeks clarifications. Participants just tell their story.

 Semi-structured interviews have an agenda with themes which is followed.

200

Case studies are difficult to _____ to a wider population


Generalise 

200

The problem with correlations that we cannot know if x causes y, if y causes x, or if there is no true cause and effect relationship.


Bidirectional ambiguity.

300

Why it is important to replicate research.


To establish the reliability of the study.

300

What is one limitation of a covert observation?


It may violate ethics; if it is a participant observation, it means that notes have to be taken in private, which means that notes rely on the memory of the researcher.

300

When we are trying to generalise our findings beyond the participants in our sample to a wider group - what is the term to describe this wider group

Target population 

300

When finishing the case study, researchers must think about how they have grown to like or dislike their participants and how this may influence the results


Researcher bias 

300

When a study takes away human agency, and says that humans have no free will, they are merely responding to their biological drives 

Determinism 

400

When an experiment is done so that neither the people who are doing the experiment nor the people who are the subjects of the experiment know which of the groups being studied is the control group and which is the test group.

Double blind control.

400

What is one strength of a covert observation 

no demand characteristics or hawthorne effect 

400

What is at least one limitations of a focus group?


Difficult to maintain confidentiality; conformity effects; not good for sensitive or private questions; there may be status or gender influences. Sometimes difficult to facilitate.  Someone may dominate.

400

Name two limitations of the case study method.


Researcher bias; longitudinal which means they require a lot of time – may mean attrition of participants or researchers; difficult to generalize to other populations; not replicable.

400

What research method is best to investigate naturally occuring variables

Correlation study / quasi / natural experiment 

500

What is the main benefit of an experiemnt?

The establishment of a cause and effect relationship

500

Name at least 3 order effects

DCs, Bordom, Fatigue, maturation

500

Define these 4 terms:

IV

DV

Extraneous Variables

Confounding Variables 

500

Who do we tend to do case studies on? And why don't we do them on other people? 

Intrinsically interesting individuals

500

This is a criticism of a study that shows too much cultural bias toward the culture of the researcher.

Ethnocentrism.  This is often a criticism of etic research.