Interest Groups
Political Parties
Elections & Campaigns
Randomly Random
List 3 functions of interest groups.
Many possible answers exist, here are some acceptable responses: - raise awareness of issues - educate public of issues - rate elected officials - lobby elected officials - provide information to the govt. - donate money to candidates
Why does the media use “sound-bites” more than longer excerpts from speeches and press conferences?
Many possible answers exist: - B/C news programs are relatively short, not enough time to show longer excerpts - People not as knowledgeable, media likes to get to the point of a story/news event - News programs like to put as much into their limited airtime...especially items that will garner large viewer ratings
List 2 functions of political parties.
Many possible answers exist, here are a few acceptable responses: - Recruit candidates to run for elective offices at all levels of government - Mobilize citizens to vote and participate in elections - Bear the responsibility of operating government IF they are in the majority - Provide organized opposition to the party in power - Unify diverse interests
This word describes a meeting of party members designed to select candidates to run for political office.
What is one reason why voter turnout in congressional races is lower than in presidential races?
Many possible answers exist: - The ONE presidential race receives more national media coverage compared to the 535 congressional elections... - Easier for the media to focus on ONE person than a large and decentralized national legislative branch
Provide one way an interest group can affect the results of an election.
Many possible answers exist: - donate money to a candidate - endorse candidates...informs public and interest group members - mobilize members to vote for a candidate
This phrase describes the media’s role when it influences what issues receive lots of attention for long periods.
Gatekeeper (or agenda setter)
What does “split-ticket” voting refer to?
When people vote for multiple political parties on a given ballot. For example, a voter might choose a Democrat for president, but then on the same ballot choose a Republican for the US Senate. The main idea...little party loyalty!
A tax-exempt group organized that raises money for issue advocacy advertisements without coordination with candidates.
501 Groups
Describe the function of ‘linkage institutions’
A structure within a society that connects the people to the government
This concept describes a committee set up to raise and spend a LIMITED amount of money on campaigns and candidates.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
This controversial law was intended to increase media options for consumers. The law has allowed companies to increase their media holdings creating large media conglomerates.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
List 2 effects third parties can sometimes have on elections.
Many possible answers exist, here are a few acceptable responses: - spoiler in elections - develop ideas that major parties adopt - mobilize people who might not have voted for the main parties to vote for a third party candidate
This phrase describes spending on communication ads by 527s, Super PACs, and 504s that is done to help a party or candidate, but is done without coordination of a candidate and political party.
Independent Expenditures
If no presidential candidate was able to win a majority of electoral votes, who would decide who would be the next president?
House of Representatives
Describe why Congress recently restricted the “revolving door” problem.
Worry that people while working in the public sector would focus on making policies that benefit their self interest in hopes of getting a more lucrative private sector job in the future
What is “horse race” journalism?
Media tends to focus on elections like a "horse race" in that the focus is more on who is leading in polls, making gaffes while NOT focusing on the issues very much
This word describes a situation when the minority party becomes stronger than the majority party.
What role do citizens play in the referendum process?
After a state legislature and governor pass/sign a bill, the PEOPLE can petition the government to put the bill up for a referendum. If a certain amount of PEOPLE sign the petition, the bill is then presented to the CITIZENS who have the opportunity to vote on making the bill a law or preventing the bill from becoming a law. -Each state has different referendum rules. Some states make it hard/easy make a referendum. -This only exists at the STATE level (not national)
Why do many states try to frontload their primaries/caucuses?
To try to increase their influence in the nominating process
List a strategy an interest group could take to lessen the effects of free riders.
Provide benefits for only those who join the organization...think AAA
List one legitimate reason for each of the following linkage institutions using media: A. Political Parties AND B. Interest Groups
Many possible answers exist: A. Run campaign ads for their party's candidates; use social media networks to mobilize support and spread information B. Run ads supporting candidates friendly to the groups policy goals; use social media to mobilize members to contact government officials
List at least 2 reasons why the United States tends to have a Two-Party system?
A few answers exist, here are the main reasons: (1) Winner-Take-All System: Winner gets everything--No 2nd place points (2) Single-Member Districts: person represents people of a given area--person with the plurality of votes wins (3) State laws can hinder 3rd party ballot access--each state has different rules
What were the TWO important precedents that came out of the Buckley v Valeo case?
1. UPHELD the ability of the government to regulate campaign donations. 2. Allows candidates to spend as much of their OWN money as they like.
What major precedent came from the Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission case (2010)?
Corporations, unions and political organizations may now spend unlimited amounts of money from their treasuries on independent political expenditures in support of or opposition to a candidate.