Definitions
Vocabulary
Signal Words
Passages- Difficult
Passages- Easy

100

the author states a problem and lists one or more possible solutions
What is problem and solution?

100

What word means to tell how two or more things are alike
What is compare?

100

first, next, then, before, after, finally, following
What is sequence?

100

One problem with every modern Olympics is that is has become very big and expensive to operate. The city or country that hosts the games often loses a lot of money. A stadium, pools, and playing fields must be built for the athletic events and housing is needed for the athletes who come from around the world. And all of these facilities are only used for two weeks! In 1984, Los Angles solved these problems by charging a fee for companies who wanted to be official sponsors of the games. Companies like McDonald’s paid a lot of money to be part of the Olympics. Many buildings that were already being built in Los Angeles were also being used. The Coliseum where the 1932 games were held was used again and many colleges and universities in the area became playing and living areas.
What is problem and solution?

100

The foundation of every pizza is the crust, and good crust comes from good dough. You might be surprised to learn that pizza dough is made from nothing more than flour, water, yeast, olive oil, salt, and sometimes sugar. Start by adding your yeast packet to a cup of warm water. Let the yeast activate, and then add two cups of flour, two tablespoons of olive oil, two teaspoons of sugar, and a teaspoon of salt. Mix all of that together and wait half an hour for the dough to rise. Now you’re ready to roll it out! .
What is sequence?

200

the passgage is putting time and order of events in the order they happened
What is chronological

200

What word means to solve or fix?
What is solution?

200

same as, similar, alike, as well as, also, both, instead of, on the other hand, different from, and as opposed to
What is compare and contrast?

200

The Olympic games began as athletic festivals to honor the Greek gods. The most important festival was held in the valley of Olympia to honor Zeus, the king of the gods. It was the festival that became the Olympic games in 776 B.C. These games were ended in 394 A.D. by the Roman emperor in Greece. No Olympic games were held for more than 1,500 years. Then the modern Olympics began is 1896. Almost 300 male athletes competed in the first modern Olympics. In the games held in 1900, female athletes were allowed to compete. The games have continued every four years since 1896, except during World War II and they will most likely continue for many years to come.
What is chronological

200

Willow Creek is very different from New York City. There are no tall skyscrapers in Willow Creek. All you can see are fields and sky. Instead of taxicab horns and fire truck sirens, it is so quiet at night that you can hear the crickets chirping. The MAIN text structure used in this paragraph is . . .
What is compare and contrast?

300

the author lists one or more causes and the resulting effects
What is cause and effect?

300

What word means to tell how two or more things are different
What is contrast?

300

problem is, question is, puzzle is, to solve this, and one answer is
What is problem and solution?

300

The Olympic symbol consists of five interlocking rings. The rings represent the five continents- Africa, Asia, North America, Europe, and South America- from which athletes come to compete in the games. The rings are colored black, blue, green, red, and yellow. At least one of those colors is found in the flag of every country sending athletes to compete in the Olympic games.
What is spatial or descriptive?

300

Volcanoes have been around for millions of years. The first volcanoes probably existed during the Jurassic era, when dinosaurs existed. Millions of years later, the Hawaiian Islands were formed by erupting volcanoes. Today, there is a Volcano on the Island of Hawaii.
What is chronological

400

the author explains how two or more things are alike and how they are different
What is compare and contrast?

400

an action or event that makes something else happen
What is cause?

400

so, because, since, therefore, if/then, this led to, as a result, a reason why, may be due to, consequently, for this reason
What is cause and effect?

400

The modern Olympics are very unlike the ancient Olympic games. Individual events are different. While there was no swimming in the ancient games, for example, there were chariot races. There were no female contestants and all athletes competed in the nude. Of course, the ancient and modern Olympics are also like in many ways. Some events, such as the javelin and the discus throws are the same. Some people say that cheating, professionalism, and nationalism in the modern games are a disgrace to the Olympic tradition. But according to the Greek writers there were many cases of cheating, nationalism, and professionalism in their Olympics, too.
What is compare and contrast?

400

Thousands of people die each year in car accidents involving drugs or alcohol. Lives could be saved if our town adopts a free public taxi service. By providing such a service, we could prevent intoxicated drivers from endangering themselves or others.
What is problem and solution?

500

the passage puts things in order without specific times and dates
What is sequence?

500

A cause creates an________
What is an effect?

500

Next, then, Using time, dates,etc.
What is Chronological

500

There are several reasons why so many people attend the Olympic games or watch them on television. One reason is tradition. The name Olympics and the torch and flame remind people of the ancient games. People can escape the ordinariness of daily life by attending or watching the Olympics. They like to identify with someone else’s individual sacrifice and accomplishment. National pride is another reason, and an athlete’s or a team’s hard earned victory becomes a nation’s victory. There are national medal counts and people keep track of how many medals their country’s athletes have won.
What is cause and effect?

500

Manny people think that one may get sick if one goes into cold weather improperly dressed; however, illnesses are not caused by temperature- they are caused by germs. So while shivering outside in the cold probably won’t strengthen your immune system, you’re more likely to contract an illness indoors.
What is cause and effect?