Residential Eutrophication Aquatic Invasives City Forest

100

What is picking up, bagging, and throwing your dog's poop away (and in some cases, composting it)?
Name an important and easy BMP (Best Management Practice) that your parents may ask you to do when walking your dog.

100

What is fertilizer, household cleaners, detergents, animal waste and manure, and/or treated and untreated municipal sewage waste?
Name two sources of phosphorus.

100

What is invasive species are known to have a direct negative impact on an ecosystem while although non-native species did not exist here before European settlement either, they are not known to cause any harm to an ecosystem (including the economy, environment or human health)?
This is the difference between a non-native species and an invasive species.

100

What is impervious?
Concrete is this type of surface.

100

What is clear-cutting?
This is the most harmful method of harvesting trees.

200

What is a rain barrel?
This can be used to collect water at the bottom of a down spout.

200

What is blue-green algae?
This is another name for cyanobacteria.

200

What are preventative strategies and education?
This is the most effective BMP for aquatic invasive species.

200

What are salt and sand?
Although we commonly spread these on icy roads during the winter, rain events and snow melt can wash these into our rivers & streams.

200

What is erosion?
Cutting down trees or removing vegetation on a slope can often cause this to occur (hint: something with soil movement).

300

What is a rain garden?
Installing one of these can absorb sitting or excess water after a rain storm that would otherwise runoff into a storm drain or waterway, plus it adds a touch of color to your yard!

300

What are warm temperatures, shallow bays, and high nutrient levels?
Under these conditions algae blooms are most common.

300

What is once an invasive species makes its way into the lake it is almost impossible to eradicate? (That is why it is important to work to prevent introduction of aquatic invasive species.)
This can be done to eradicate an invasive species once it makes its way into Lake Champlain (or other lakes).

300

What are silt fencing, sod, or straw?
Erosion can be controlled at construction sites by using these.

300

What is a floodplain or river corridor?
This area provides a location to naturally store water in, thus minimizing impacts during severe weather events.

400

What is phosphorus? Although Vermont no longer allows phosphorus in household detergents and cleaners, it is found in human and animal wastes, and is used frequently on agricultural lands and by homeowners to increase vegetation growth. During a rain event, phosphorus clings to soil particles and is carried into our waterways in the form of runoff. When in excess (it is the limiting nutrient in freshwater systems), it can cause nuisance algal blooms.
This element is found in soaps, detergents, animal waste, fertilizers and naturally in the earth (rocks and soil)- but often makes its way into our waterways in high and damaging levels. Bonus: In addition to naming this element, describe how it gets into our lakes and rivers, and some of the negative impacts it has if found in excess there.

400

What are: 1. Education of farmers and people living in the watershed? 2. Riparian Buffer Zones along stream banks and shorelines? 3. Getting a soil test to confirm phosphorus is needed before adding phosphorus fertilizers to lawns, gardens or farm fields? 4. Leaving grass clippings on your lawn as this recycles nutrients? 5. Planting rain gardens or utilizing rain barrels?
Name two BMPs to help reduce phosphorus in the lake.

400

What is educational signs reminding people to clean their boats, or stewards on site to help remind people to clean their boats and motors?
This is one BMP that marinas can use to help prevent aquatic invasive species from getting into the lake.

400

What is pouring it down the drain or directly into storm sewers?
This is an improper way to dispose of your household hazardous wastes, such as antifreeze, paint, or oil.

400

What are riparian buffer zones?
These can help to stabilize stream banks, minimize erosion, and infiltrate water from runoff.

500

What is a storm drain?
These are common in residential areas and are often where runoff from lawns, sidewalks, and streets ends up.

500

What is an excess amount of phosphorus runs off into the lake causing accelerated growth of plants such as blue-green algae? The algae begins to create a layer on top of the lake which blocks out sunlight from plants on the bottom of the lake and they begin to die. This then causes a decline in dissolved oxygen in the water which can cause fish to die off. At the same time the algae can release toxins into the water which can make living conditions for fish even more difficult. The area soon becomes a dead zone with few living organisms.
This is the process by which eutrophication occurs. (Explain the process.)

500

What are spiny waterflea, alewife, zebra mussels, Eurasian water milfoil, water chestnut, sea lamprey, ...? What are these species can outcompete native species for food and and space?
Two aquatic invasive species found in Lake Champlain today and one impact they are having on the ecosystem.

500

What is a green roof? Green roofs can absorb rainwater and minimize runoff, they can work to mitigate the urban heat island effect, and they can also be aesthetically pleasing and provide a green space in the city.
This method of green infrastructure is becoming increasingly popular in cities and two ecological benefits of it.

500

What is: •Honey Suckle •Japanese Knotweed •Glossy Buckthorn •Garlic Mustard •Purple Loosestrife •Japanese Barberry •Emerald Ash Borer •Asian Long-Horned Beetle •Poison Parsnip (wild parsnip) • and many more... The direct threats of invasive species: • preying on native species • out-competing native species for food or other resources • causing or carrying disease • preventing native species from reproducing or killing their young
This is one of the most prolific (abundant) invasive species in Vermont forests today and two ways this invasive species can be harmful to an ecosystem.

Keeping the Balance Jeopardy

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