Thinking and Learning
Brain and Memory

What is Memory?

learning that has persisted over time- information that has been stored and in many cases can be recalled.


What is Motivation?

the need or desire to do something. Set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal.


What is Emotion And what are the three concepts of emotions?

A complex pattern of feelings that includes arousal, cognitions, and expressive behaviors

Three components of Emotions: 

Biological- Autonomic nervous system

Cognitive- Thoughts, values, and expectations

Behavioral- Expressions, gestures, and body positions


What is Cognition?

mental event

• Acquiring knowledge

• Storing Knowledge

• Retrieving Knowledge

• Using Knowledge


What kind of memories is the Amygdala responsible for?

Emotional memories


What are the three stages of Memory?

Sensory Memory( encoding), Working Memory(encoding), Long Term Memory(retrieval)


What Hormone in the body is responsible for Hunger And what part of the brain controls it?

Ghrelin, Hypothalamus


What is the James Lange Theory?

perceptive/ interpretation or feeling resulting from a physiological change


What are the three strategies to learn concept?

1. Prototype- ideal example of a concept->easily identifiable/ recognizable

2. Artificial concept- Parameters of that concept

-> meet criteria of concept

-> ie: dog and wolves are a similar concept because they are canines

3. Hierarchies- group concepts, every species/ concept are grouped into subcategories


What kind of memories is the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum responsible for?

• Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum- creation and storage of basic memory and implicit/ non- declarative LTM


What are  two methods of Procedural memory?

1. mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organized devices. Ie: Acronyms

2. chunking: organizing items into familiar, recognizable units, often occurs automatically


What four disorders are a result of Hunger?

Obesity- Body mass index of 30 or above, based on height and weight

Anorexia Nervosa- Characterized by a severe loss of weight resulting from self- imposed starvation and an obsessive fear of obesity

Bulimia Nervosa- Characterized by consumption of large quantities of food (binging), followed by vomiting, extreme excercise, and/ or laxative use

Binge eating disorder- characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amount of food in a discrete period of time, while feeling a lack of control, but not followed by purge behaviors (this is how it delivers from bulimia nervosa)


What is the Cannon- bard theory?

emotions and physiological changes occur simultaneously


What are the three steps of problem solving?

1. Prep- identify facts

2.  Produce- Procedure- algorithm (step by step)

3. Evaluate- evaluate solutions generated by a procedure


What Kind of memories is the Hippocampus responsible for?

Explicit/ declarative and implicit/ non- declarative LTM as well as sequences of events


What is the difference between shallow processing and deep processing?

Shallow Processing- encoding information on basic auditory or visual levels based on the sound, structure or appearance of a word.

Deep processing- encodes semantically, based on actual meaning associated with the word.


What are the four theories of Motivation? explain

1. Evolutionary Perspective- 

Instinct- complex, unlearned behaviors that have a fixed pattern throughout a species

Ie: dog shakes fur when wet

2. Drive- Reduction-  A physiological need, or drive, simply compels us to reduce that need.

Ie: Need: food Drive: Hunger  drive-reduction behavior: burrito

->Balancing Homeostasis:  body wants to naturally find a balance

Incentives-  the positive or negative stimuli that either entice or repel us, results from external stimuli that pull the organisms in certain directions

3. Optimal Arousal- motivated to maintain a balance between stimulation and relaxation

• want to hit the right level of arousal without getting overstimulated and stressed

• We are motivated to avoid boredom and stress

4. Mallow’s hierarchy of needs-  pyramid structure-> one aspect must be realized before moving up pyramid basic needs must be met first

Physiological-> Safety-> belongingness and love-> esteem-> self- actualization


What is the two factor theory?

emotions depend on physiological arousal and cognitive labeling


What is Heuristics and what are the three processes?

Heuristics- Short cut, simple rule-> does not guarantee a solution but narrows alternative

1. can work backwards (procedural)

2.  means to an end( mean does not water, just get to end)

3.  create sub goals- simple steps to get to goals, breaking down large goal to small sub goals 


What Kind of Memories is the thalamus responsible for?

Formation of new memories and spatial working memory


What is the difference between Explicit Memory and Implicit Memory?

Explicit Memory (declarative)- Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

Implicit Memory(non-declarative)-  Retention independent of conscious recollection 


What Are the two different types of Motivation? Explain

1. Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation or activity based on external rewards or threats of punishment

2. Intrinsic Motivation- Motivation for a task or activity based on internal incentives, such as enjoyment or personal satisfaction


What is the six step guide for emotional intelligence?

1. Acknowledge emotions

2. Differentiate and analyze emotions

3. Accept and appreciate emotions

4. Reflect on emotions and origin

5. Handle your emotions

6. Handle the emotions of others


What are the barriers to problem solving?

• Mental set- Persisting in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones

• Functional fixedness- tendency to think of an object as functioning only in its usual or customary way

• Confirmation Bias- preferring information that confirms pre existing positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence, remembering the “hits” and ignoring the “misses”

• Divergent Thinking- Diverse thinking that produces many alternatives from a single starting point, a major element of creativity (multiple answers)

• Convergent thinking- narrowing down alternatives to converge on a single correct answer (one answer)


What kind of memories is the cerebral cortex responsible for?

Encoding, storage, and retrieval 

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