Phonemic Awareness
Phonics 1
Phonics 2
Advanced Word Study

How many spoken syllables are in the word cleaned?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4


This student has the greatest need for intervention focused on systematic, explicit phonics

A. Kindergartener who is good at letter naming but weak in phoneme segmentation.

B. Second grader who relies on context clues to identify words but has trouble sounding out familiar words, including nonsense words.

C. Third grader who still sounds out irregular, HFW such as said and does

D. First grader who can decode nonsense words but is disorganized when retelling a story.


A good phonic lesson should include opportunities for students to directly apply the phoneme-grapheme relationships that have been explicitly taught. Which text type would best provide the practice needed?

A. grade-level text

B. leveled readers

C. predictable text

D. decodable text


Which of the following two-syllable words contains an open syllable and a closed syllable?

A. robot

B. robin

C. bible

D. rely


After results of a winter screening six second graders in the "somewhat at risk" range. What is the next thing the teacher team should do?

A. coordinate what lesson students are receiving in the core instruction program

B. analyze the screening results and gather additional diagnostic assessment data

C. interview each student to determine his/her interests

D. place the students in groups based on the leveled text they can read


How many spoken syllables are in the word frightening?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4


In phoneme-grapheme mapping, student first segment and mark boxes for phonemes. Then, they map the graphemes. If a student was mapping the graphemes in the word void, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4


How is the word sn-ow divided?

A. phoneme

B. syllable

C. onset-rime

D. phoneme-grapheme


Which of the following is a morphological spelling error?

A. "form" for from

B. "trane" for train

C. "playd" for played

D. "brid" for bird


Which statement best describes the relationship between reading comprehension and word decoding in a beginning reader's development?

A. Reading comprehension strategies directly facilitate the development of decoding skills

B. These skills develop independent of one another

C. Accurate, fast word recognition is necessary for development of reading fluency and text comprehension

D. Developing decoding skills is secondary to the development of text comprehension skills


Having students listen to a work, say it, and then mentally reverse the sounds in the word is an instructional activity that would be most appropriate for students who have:

A. a relatively low level of phonological awareness

B. not reached mastery in letter recognition

C. mastered basic phonemic awareness

D. reached mastery in matching uppercase and lowercase letter


Of all the phonic correspondences represented in these words, which pattern is likely to be learned after the others?

A. vine

B. best

C. map

D. dish


A mid-year first grader reached benchmark on screening for correct letter sounds, but did not read any whole words accurately when asked to read simple nonsense syllables. This student should receive:

A. small group instruction focusing on nonsense words

B. progress monitoring in oral reading fluency

C. instruction in phoneme blending

D. more practice reading text at the independent level


How can a teacher explain to students why there is a double "n" in beginning?

A. the base word ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel

B. the final consonant is not well articulated and needs to be strengthened

C. there is no rule to explain this

D. the final consonant of a word is always doubled with -ing


A second grader lacks fluency when reading aloud. The first thing the teacher should assess is whether the student also has problems with:

A. phonology and decoding

B. listening comprehension

C. executive functioning

D. breadth of vocabulary


The ability to identify, segment, blend, and manipulate individual phonemes in spoken words is important for reading because:

A. wordplay and love of language are important characteristics of independent readers

B. each letter in a word represents an individual phoneme

C. this skill ultimately supports the ability to read words by "sight"

D. semantic (meaning-making) processes are our primary concern


In the early-alphabetic phase of reading, student know some letter-sound correspondences and most letter names. A student at this level is most likely to progress with instruction focused on:

A. finger-point reading of predictable text

B. writing 4-5 word sentences in dictation

C.rhyming, syllable clapping, and visual discrimination of letters

D. blending 2-3 phoneme-grapheme correspondences with simple, one-syllable words


A teacher has a alphabetic word wall posted in the room. The following words are listed under the letter "T" - too, them, the, this, then. How could the teacher best ensure that students will recognize and spell these words?

A. Teach all of the words using the Trace and Say technique

B. Point to the word wall when the words are encountered in text

C. Remove regularly spelled th words, and teach through sound blending

D. Make individual copies of the word wall list for every student


A second grader writes "I finely finished my math project." Her misspelling of the word finally most likely indicates:

A. she is not attentive to the sounds in the word

B. she needs to know how the meaningful parts (morphemes) distinguish a word

C. she does not know basic letter-sound correspondences

D. she needs to learn to pay closer attention to the syllable types


The most important implication of the Four-Part Processing Model for Word Recognition is that:

A. context is a primary driver of word recognition

B. reading depends on constructing pathways between the phonological, orthographic, and meaning processors

C. reading is primarily a visually driven process, dependent on the brain's "letterbox"

D. students can compensate for weak phonology if they know the meaning of many words


Student with relative weaknesses in basic phonemic awareness are most likely to make progress if the teacher:

A. show as letter and asks the students to produce a corresponding phoneme

B. asks students to lsiten to words such as flap, rap, snap, and boat and choose the one that does no rhyme

C. asks the students to look in a mirror while they describe the way that target phonemes are formed in the mouth

D. models how to repeat and clap syllables in words


Which of the following is the best example for a well-designed word list for a word chaining activity?

A. fat, chat, chap, chip, rip, rap

B. see, saw, seen, sees, seeing

C. bar, rib, bit, barb, rabbit

D. them, their, those, the, there


If students were mapping the graphemes in the word dodged, how many boxes (phonemes) would they need?

A. 2

B. 3

C. 4

D. 5


Which of the following words is Latin based?

A. lamppost

B. transport

C. chlorophyl

D. wayward


Near the end of the day, a kindergarten teacher guides the students in a conversation about the day's activities. She writes down what is said on large chart paper, then reads it to the class. This activity would aid their literacy development primarily by promoting their:

A. oral language comprehension

B. basic understanding of orthographic patterns

C. syntactic processing

D. phonological awareness

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