Criminal Law
Due Process
Landmark Supreme Court Cases
Civil Law
Judicial Branch Basics
100
This person represents the government in a criminal trial, thus they are trying to prove that the defendant is guilty of committing a crime.
Prosecutor
100
A police officer needs this piece of paper before searching or arresting a person.
Warrant
100
This court case LEGALIZED segregation, thus allowing it to take place for many decades—leading to inequality throughout the United States.
Plessy v. Ferguson
100
What is the name of the person that brings the complaint in civil law?
Plaintiff
100
This is the highest court in the United States of America.
US Supreme Court
200
What type of jury decides if a defendant will be indicted (formally accused) of committing a crime?
Grand Jury
200
What amendment requires that the government not use “cruel and unusual punishments” against a defendant?
8th Amendment
200
This court case REVERSED a previous court decision by banning the use of racial segregation in public schools.
Brown v. Board of Education
200
List the type of civil law deals with a person committing a wrongful act (no contract involved).
Tort
200
What is the main power of the judicial branch?
To interpret laws
300
What does it mean for a grand jury to indict a defendant?
To officially accuse a person of committing a crime.
300
What amendment requires that the government provide a lawyer and to provide a speedy trial to a defendant?
6th Amendment
300
This court case forces police officers to read suspected criminals their due process rights.
Miranda v. Arizona
300
List 2 examples of contract law.
Many examples exist: - Buying a car - Hiring a DJ or contractor
300
This court case established the principle of judicial review.
Marbury v. Madison
400
What is the name of the burden of proof used in a criminal trial?
Beyond a Reasonable Doubt
400
What phrase describes the principle that one cannot be charged for the same crime twice?
Double Jeopardy
400
This court case guarantees that a suspected criminal must be provided a lawyer no matter what.
Gideon v. Wainwright
400
List an example of a tort.
Many examples exist: - If Bob goes to McDonalds and an employee accidentally spills coffe on Bob's leg, Bob could bring a lawsuit against McDonalds for damages. (Bob = plaintiff; McDonalds = defendant)
400
What is the name of Maryland’s highest court?
Maryland Court of Appeals
500
A deal made between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime, though the defendant serves a relatively small punishment.
Plea Bargain
500
This PHRASE in the Constitution requires that the must provide compensation before taking a person’s property.
Eminent Domain
500
This court case established that the national government is supreme over the states & it also explained how Congress can use the “necessary and proper clause”.
McCulloch v. Maryland
500
What is the burden of proof that is used in civil law?
Preponderance of Evidence
500
This constitutional principle states that no person is above the law, no matter their wealth or power.
Rule of Law
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