Criminal Law
Due Process
Landmark Supreme Court Cases
Civil Law
Judicial Branch Basics

100

This person represents the government in a criminal trial, thus they are trying to prove that the defendant is guilty of committing a crime.
Prosecutor

100

A police officer needs this piece of paper before searching or arresting a person.
Warrant

100

This court case LEGALIZED segregation, thus allowing it to take place for many decades—leading to inequality throughout the United States.
Plessy v. Ferguson

100

What is the name of the person that brings the complaint in civil law?
Plaintiff

100

This is the highest court in the United States of America.
US Supreme Court

200

What type of jury decides if a defendant will be indicted (formally accused) of committing a crime?
Grand Jury

200

What amendment requires that the government not use “cruel and unusual punishments” against a defendant?
8th Amendment

200

This court case REVERSED a previous court decision by banning the use of racial segregation in public schools.
Brown v. Board of Education

200

List the type of civil law deals with a person committing a wrongful act (no contract involved).
Tort

200

What is the main power of the judicial branch?
To interpret laws

300

What does it mean for a grand jury to indict a defendant?
To officially accuse a person of committing a crime.

300

What amendment requires that the government provide a lawyer and to provide a speedy trial to a defendant?
6th Amendment

300

This court case forces police officers to read suspected criminals their due process rights.
Miranda v. Arizona

300

List 2 examples of contract law.
Many examples exist: - Buying a car - Hiring a DJ or contractor

300

This court case established the principle of judicial review.
Marbury v. Madison

400

What is the name of the burden of proof used in a criminal trial?
Beyond a Reasonable Doubt

400

What phrase describes the principle that one cannot be charged for the same crime twice?
Double Jeopardy

400

This court case guarantees that a suspected criminal must be provided a lawyer no matter what.
Gideon v. Wainwright

400

List an example of a tort.
Many examples exist: - If Bob goes to McDonalds and an employee accidentally spills coffe on Bob's leg, Bob could bring a lawsuit against McDonalds for damages. (Bob = plaintiff; McDonalds = defendant)

400

What is the name of Maryland’s highest court?
Maryland Court of Appeals

500

A deal made between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser crime, though the defendant serves a relatively small punishment.
Plea Bargain

500

This PHRASE in the Constitution requires that the must provide compensation before taking a person’s property.
Eminent Domain

500

This court case established that the national government is supreme over the states & it also explained how Congress can use the “necessary and proper clause”.
McCulloch v. Maryland

500

What is the burden of proof that is used in civil law?
Preponderance of Evidence

500

This constitutional principle states that no person is above the law, no matter their wealth or power.
Rule of Law