Mineral Characteristics
Sedimentary Rocks
Igneous Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
Bonus Questions

100

A metallic mineral with a strong red/brown streak color. 

What is hematite? 


100

What is a sedimentary rock?

A rock formed from sediments or solutes that are transported, deposited and then lithified by the combined effects of compaction and cementation. 

100

Formed from the cooling of magma (intrusive) or lava (extrusive).

What is an igneous rock?

100

A pre-existing rock that was deformed by immense pressure and/or heat without the rock melting (doesn't return to magma). Metamorphic rocks can be made from igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks.

What is a metamorphic rock?

100

What is cleavage in a mineral? How is this different than fracturing?

The tendency of a mineral to break along smooth planes parallel to zones of weak bonding.

If a mineral fractures it has no planes of cleavage. It will break irregularly.

A mineral that fractures is quartz.

200

Term used to describe a mineral with a "glassy" look to it. (i.e. quartz, fluorite) 

What is vitreous luster? 

200

Way to describe grain shape of arkose. 

What is angular grain angularity? 

200

A phaneritic rock which contains quartz, biotite and potassium feldspar.

What is granite?

200

Marble and quartzite share this characteristic. 


Non-foliated metamorphic rocks

200

What is the difference between how intrusive and extrusive rocks form? How does this affect the texture of the rocks?

Intrusive: formed within earths crust from slow cooling of magma.

Extrusive: formed at earths surface from rapid cooling of lava.

Intrusively formed rocks are phaneritic. Extrusively formed rocks are mainly aphanitic.

300

Muscovite, biotite, and gypsum share this property. 

What is single perfect cleavage? 

300

Depositional environment shared by sandstone and conglomerate.

What are rivers?


300

This rock is felsic, vesicular and extrusively formed. 

What is pumice? 

300

Name three of the four foliated rocks from class. 

(Can you name the fourth?)

Gneiss

Schist

Phyllite

Slate

300

Describe foliation and how it occurs.

A sheet like, layered structure in rocks. Caused by shearing forces or differential pressure.


400

One mineral reacts with HCl only when powdered, the other will react with HCl even when it is not powdered. 

What is the major difference between dolomite and calcite? 

400

Rock with grains that are clay-sized, well-sorted and well-rounded. 

What is shale/mudstone?

400

How do porphyritic rocks form? Give examples of porphyritic rocks.

Two stage formation. First stage, the magma is cooled slowly deep in the crust, creating the large crystal grains. Second stage, the magma is cooled rapidly at relatively shallow depth or as it erupts from a volcano, creating small grains.

Examples: Rhyolite, Andesite


400

Name the protolith(s) of marble, quartzite, and hornfels

Marble: limestone or dolomite

Quartzite: Sandstone

Hornfels: Pretty much and rock (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic)

500

Mineral that is harder than glass, has no cleavage or streak color and a green bulk color. It may have vitreous luster or a sandy grain texture. 

What is olivine? 

500

What is the difference in depositional environment between fossiliferous limestone and crystalline limestone?

There is none. Both form in marine environments. 

500

Igneous rock that exhibits a combination of intrusive and extrusive characteristics. 

What is Andesite? 

500

Fill in the blanks


Answer:

1: Shale

2: Slate

3: Phyllite

4: Schist

5: Gneiss

6: Increasing Metamorphism