New Imperialism
World War I: Causes (M.A.I.N.) and Effects
Political and Economic Revolution
World War II: Cause and Effects
Cold War

100

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
What is imperialism?

100

The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
What is militarism?

100

This economic crisis, which began in the United States in 1929, spread across the globe, contributing to political and economic unrest.
What is the Great Depression?

100

This fascist German dictator re-militarized the Rhineland and annexed German-speaking Sudetenland (of Czechoslovakia) and Austria in the years leading up to WWII, in violation of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Who is Adolf Hitler?

100

A state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular.
What is cold war?

200

Also known as the "Race for Africa" or the Partition of Africa, it was the invasion, occupation, colonization, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914.
What is the "Scramble for Africa"?

200

A union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations.
What is an alliance?

200

Political and economic theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
What is communism?

200

The policy of making concessions to dictatorial powers (e.g. Nazi Germany) in order to avoid conflict, governed Anglo-French foreign policy during the 1930s. The Munich Agreement (1938) is regarded as such.
What is appeasement?

200

The "domino theory," or the idea that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, led to this U.S. policy that sought to prevent the spread of communism (and led to proxy wars in Korea and Vietnam).
What is the policy of containment?

300

An area (e.g. a country) over which another nation holds political and economic influence.
What is a "sphere of influence"?

300

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
What is imperialism?

300

WWI strained Russia's weak government and economy, resulting in mass shortages and hunger. The war caused people and soldiers to turn on Tsar Nicholas II. The Tsar lost control first of the streets, then of the soldiers, and finally of the Duma (legislative body), resulting in his forced abdication. These events mark the beginning of this event.
What is the Russian Revolution?

300

This peace treaty (1919) placed the blame for WWI on Germany, forced Germany to disarm, to make substantial territorial concessions, and to pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers (namely France). It was a major contributor to the outbreak of WWII.
What is the Treaty of Versailles?

300

A 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other side. The crisis is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict.
What is the Cuban Missile Crisis?

400

This conference (1884-1885) resulted in the regulation of European colonization and trade in Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
What is the Berlin Conference?

400

An extreme form of patriotism, especially marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.
What is nationalism?

400

A seizure of state power by "soviets" instrumental in a larger revolution led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin who went on to become leader of the USSR (Soviet Union).
What is the October (or Bolshevik) Revolution?

400

A political system in which the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible. Fascism, an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization under the leadership of a single political party (e.g. the Nazi Party), is an example.
What is totalitarianism?

400

An organization formed in Washington, D.C. (1949), comprising the 12 nations of the Atlantic Pact together with Greece, Turkey, and the Federal Republic of Germany, for the purpose of collective defense against aggression (namely by communist nations).
What is NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)?

500

Reasons for European colonization of Africa and Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries.
What are economic (access to natural resources and markets), political (to maintain the European "balance of power"), and humanitarian (spread Christianity and "White Man's Burden") factors, and Social Darwinism (sense of racial superiority)?

500

Two empires that disintegrated as a consequence of WWI.
What are the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires?

500

Following Lenin's death, this man took dictatorial control of the USSR (Soviet Union); he is responsible for tens of millions of deaths (via the Great Purge, gulags, mandatory industrialization, etc.).
Who is Joseph Stalin?

500

This international peace-keeping organization (which the U.S. refused to join due to its isolationist policies), founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference at the end of WWI, failed to prevent WWII.
What is the League of Nations?

500

The principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, the doctrine was seen by the communists as an open declaration of the Cold War.
What is the Truman Doctrine?