Fun Facts
Paper 3 Structure
Do's or Dont's?

4 different areas that Muhammad Ali Pasha enacted reforms in

Agricultural, Economic, Industrial, Militaristic (Military)


When does Muhammad Ali come to Egypt and why?

Muhammad Ali came, with Albanian troops, to Egypt in 1801 to fight against French occupation.


What movie is coming out soon related to what we have studied?

Napoleon - Starring Joaquin Phoenix


What goes into your introduction/thesis?

The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions:

1.) What is this?     

2.) Why am I reading it?      

3.) What do you want me to do?

You should answer these questions by doing the following:

  • Set the context – provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support 

  • State why the main idea is important – tell the reader why s/he should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon

  • State your thesis/claim – compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility).


Using personal pronouns: "In this essay I will..." or "I think that Muhammad Ali Pasha..."

Do not do this!


When did Muhammad Ali Pasha cultivate cotton in the Delta?


  • Cotton became a key export and cash crop

  • Improved the lives & wages of the fellaheen (peasant farmers) which resulted in greater support of Muhammad Ali


In what year was the Mameluke massacre and what was its significance? 

1811 and the massacre proved his ruthlessness as a leader, was an example of his militaristic prowess, and allowed Muhammad Ali Pasha to establish his power in Egypt.


How many children did Muhammad Ali Pasha bear?



How should your body paragraphs look? What should the overall structure be like?

Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid - the broadest range of information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper progresses, the author becomes more and more focused on the argument ending with specific, detailed evidence supporting a claim.


Handwriting is illegible (cannot read)

Do not! I cannot grade what I cannot read.


When did Muhammad Ali Pasha establish a new educational system and what is one fact about that new educational system?

1811 and one of the following:

a) open to both men and women

b) offered scholarships for individuals to study abroad

c) encouraged Egyptian citizens to become bureaucrats, doctors, or veterinarians.


What War of Independence spans from 1824-1826

Egyptian troops fight on behalf of the Ottoman sultan in the Greek War of Independence against the French, Russians, Greek and British - losing.


What happened in 1798 (hint: Context!)

The French, seeking to control the fastest route from Europe to India, launch a military expedition to Egypt under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte. The expedition turns into a disaster, as British warships follow the French and destroy their fleet, leaving the French stranded in Egypt.


What goes into your analysis in a Paper 3?

This is the part of your essay when you're delving not into the what or how but the why. Additionally, why is x significant to the question, other perspectives, or additional historical concepts such as change, continuity, consequence, significance, caausation.


Writing explicative and other informal language such as "Papa Pasha", "he destroyed the mamelukes", or "**** and ******".

Please for the love of Napoleon do not!


Significance of the waqf.

The other major source of revenue Muhammad Ali created was a new tax on waqf endowments, which were previously tax-free. Through these endowments, personal income could be set aside for schools or other charitable purposes. As well as raising revenue to fund his new military, this tax took revenue away from the local elite, Mamluks and the ulama, weakening opposition to Muhammad Ali's reforms.


After a failed conquest into Syria in 1839, what does a frustrated and disgruntled Muhammad Ali Pasha do?

Decides to invade the Ottoman Empire - due to the intervention of foreign powers he withdraws.


Do you know when the Ottomans first conquered Egypt?



Can I spell something wrong like Mameluke/Waqf/Felaheen.

Try not to (study it!) but if I can use context clues and get the "gist" of the word you're trying to write, that's completely fine.


Significance of the 'corvée labor system'.

The peasantry objected to these conscriptions and many ran away from their villages to avoid being taken, sometimes fleeing as far away as Syria. A number of them maimed themselves so as to be unsuitable for combat: common ways of self-maiming were blinding an eye with rat poison and cutting off a finger of the right hand, so as to be unable to fire a rifle.


At what battle does the Greek War for Independence end?

The Battle of Navarino - 1827


When was Muhammad Ali Pasha appointed governor of Egypt? What 2 groups did he have the support of?

1805 - The Ulema and the Felaheen.


What goes into writing your conclusion?

In a general way,

• restate your topic and why it is important,

• restate your thesis/claim,

• address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,

• call for action or overview future research possibilities.