Asthma Cystic Fibrosis Upper Respiratory Infections Otitis Media Tonsillectomy & Misc

100

What is a Methylxanthines i.e, ( Theophylline:PO, Aminophylline; IV)
Relaxes muscle bundles that constrict airways; dilate airways; provides continuous airway relaxation; sustained release for prevention of nocturnal symptoms. Tablet form of this drug should not be crushed or chewed. Continuous administration is needed and works best when a specific amount is maintained in the bloodstream. Monitor serum levels

100

What is a mucoltytic ? i.e ( Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme),Acetylcysteinie/Mucomyst
The nebulization form of these medications breaks up a and viscosity of mucus and improves lung function by minute particles being dispersed throughout the respiratory tract. These droplets are much finer than those created by inhalers.Monitor the child for improvement in PFTs. Some effects can be voice alterations and laryngitis.Safe for children younger than 12 years. Does not replace other therapies for CF but is used in conjunction

100

Waht is decongestant drops ?
Medications used to shrink swollen nasal passages but limit use of nose drops or sprays to 3 days to prevent rebound congestion

100

What is Amoxicillin (Amoxil), amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin), and azithromycin (Zithromax) ?
First-line antibiotics used and administered in high doses, usually 80 to 90 mg/kg/day in two divided doses.The usual course of treatment is 10 to 14 days in children younger than 6 years of age. The course may be shorter for older children.

100

What is Penicillin IM: Penicillin G,Erythromycin (if penicillin allergy) ?
Administer to treat bacterial infections such as Group A β-hemolytic streptococci and prevent the risk for serious sequelae such as acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. IM form (one injection)resolves compliance issue.

200

What is anti-inflammatory /Corticosteroids ? i.e. (Belcomethasone/Vanceril, Methylprednisone Prednisone/Deltasone)
Can be given orally, inhaled( usually for long-term control) or parenterally ( systemic for quick relief control). Used primarily in moderate to severe exacerbations to reduce inflammatory (mucosal edema of airways) response during or prevent an episode. Will enhance the effectiveness of B2 agonist.Administer with food and milk to prevent gastric upset. Rinse mouth after inhalation to prevent oral candidiasis.

200

What is Pancreatic enzymes – Pancrelipase (Pancrease)/Cotazyn/Ultrase ?
Used to treat pancreatic insufficiency associated with cystic fibrosis. Aids in the digestion and absorption of nutrients.Capsules should be given with or before all meals and can be swallowed whole or sprinkled on food. Dosage is based on number of consistency of stools and adequate weight gain.

200

What is —epinephrine ,Racemic epinephrine ?
Drug used Sub Q in emergency treatment of status asthmaticus and nebulized treatment for epiglottis.Observe the child for 3 hr after administration of medication.Inform the child that they may feel an acceleration in heart rate during the administration of this medication

200

What is decongestants or antihistamines, steroids and antibiotic ear drops ?
Contraindicated for use with otitis media

200

What is Antipyretics – Acetaminophen (Tylenol)/Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and codeine ?
Medications use to manage pain and fever Postoperatively for Tonsillectomy patients on a regular schedule and after discharge.

300

What is an Cholinergic antagoinist ( antichlininergic medications) i.e Ipratropium ( Atrovent)
Quick-relief (“rescue”) medications that block the parasympathetic nervous system from providing relief of acute bronchospasms. Monitor for dry mouth when taking these class of medications. So encourage older children to suck on hard candies to help dry mouth.

300

B2 agonist (short-acting)-Albuterol( Proventil), Metoproterenol, Terbutaline( Brethine), Levalbuterol ?
Drugs of choice used to relax smooth muscles of the airways within 5-10 minutes to relieve bronchospasms in cystic fibrosis and asthmatics . Drugs of choice for rescue therapy (via a MDI or nebulizer). Child needs to be monitored for tremors and tachycardia when taking this class of drugs.

300

What is antihistamines, cough suppressants ( due to alcohol content) ?
Contraindicated remedies for treating “common cold” in children under 5 year of age.

300

What is breastfeeding ? (possibly due to the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA)
This produces a lower incidence of otitis media in infants.

300

What is Benzocaine (Americaine-Otic) ?
Ear drops for topical pain relief of otitis media.

400

What is a leukotriene modifier i.e.Montelkukast(Singular) ?
Long term control that acts to reduce inflammation Improves lung function and diminishes symptoms and need for rescue medications.These drugs works by blocking the action of leukotrienes (substances that cause inflammation, fluid retention, mucous secretion, and constriction) in the client's lungs.Used as an adjunct to inhaled steroids in moderate and severe cases. Take as prescribed , do not withdraw abruptly. Due to the side effect of drowsiness, it is usually taken once a day in the evening with or without food.. These class of drugs are ineffective as a bronchospasm prophylacticlly and do not need to be administered before activity. Overall ineffective as a rescue medication.

400

What is Oral glucose-lowering agents or insulin injections ?
Medications used to stabilize blood sugar due to insulin resistance and insulin deficiency that occurs in CF patients. Overall goal is to maintain glucose homeostasis. Close monitoring of blood glucose is needed and administer drugs as prescribed.

400

What is Heliox ?
Used in croup syndromes and asthma if child is unresponsive to other treatments.

400

What is Acetaminophen/Ibuprofen (only if >6 months of age) ?
Analgesic-antipyretic drug to treat otitis media

400

What is Home IV antibiotic therapy & Aerosolized antibiotics ?
Used aggressively for treatment of potential pulmonary infections in CF patients.

500

What is a mast cell stabilizer i.e Cromolyn Soduiun (Intal), Nedocromil,Tilade ?
Anti-inflammatory, inhibit early and late-phase asthma response to allergens and exercise-induced bronchospasms; may also be used for unavoidable allergen exposure. Not to used in acute attack or with symptom development. May not see maximum benefit of the drug for up to 4-6 weeks of use. Must be used up to 4 times a day to beneficial.

500

What is Water-miscible forms of vitamins A, D, E, and K are given, along with multivitamins and iron ?
Must be given to optimize absorption of nutrients needed to maintained well balanced diet in CF patients.

500

What is Palivizumab (Synagis) ?
Used prophylacticlly to prevent RSV

500

What is Amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin), azithromycin Cephalosporins IM(If highly resistant organism or noncompliant with oral doses)?
Second-line antibiotics used for otitis media.

500

What is Ribavirin ?
Used as aerosol antiviral treatment for Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) and influenzae, preventing the virus from replicating.

NURS 461 Pediatric Respiratory Medications Review

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