Nutrition Category

Define Nutrition

Nutrition is the study of food, how it affects the human body and influences health and metabolism— specifically how the body metabolizes food for energy.

Adequate nutrition is needed for wellness.


What are proteins?

Complex molecules made up of amino acids. They are essential for growth and repair. They build tissue and nitrogen balance.


What happens when amino acids are catabolized?

The nitrogen containing part is converted to ammonia (NH3) and excreted in the urine as urea. The nitrogen balance reflects how well the body tissues are being maintained.


What is cholesterol?

Wax like substance needed for formation of cell membranes- vitamins d, estrogen and testosterone. It is synthesized in the liver and found in animal foods 


What are micronutrients?

Needed only in small amounts and regulate body functions with vitamins and minerals. 


What is metabolism?

Metabolism encompasses all the ways in which the body changes and uses nutrients. 


What are lipids? 

Lipids are organic (carbon-containing) substances that are insolvable in water. They are made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen- the same basic elements that make up carbs. The term lipid comes from lipos, a Greek word that means fat. 

Lipids that are solid at room temperature are called fats, when they are liquid at room temperature they are called oils.


What are the functions of protein?

Tissue building, metabolism, immune system function, fluid balance, acid-base balance and secondary energy source.

Flavor and satiety, insulator/protector, aid in digestion of vitamins.


What are LDL’s?

Low density Lipoproteins are bad cholesterol. They transport cholesterol to body cells. They can result in fatty deposits on vessel walls which can cause cardiovascular disease.


What are the fat soluble vitamins?

Vitamin A D E K

(All dogs eat kibble)


Two types of metabolic reaction are?

Anabolism- involves the formation of larger molecules from smaller ones. 

Catabolism- involves the breakdown of larger moldecules into smaller components.


What are essential amino acids?

Essential amino acids are significant in our diets because they body cannot manufacture them. They must be supplied by food or nutritional supplements.


What are glycerides?

(True fats) consisting of one molecule of glycerol attached to one, two or three fatty acid chains.


What are HDL’s?

High density lipoproteins are good cholesterol. They remove cholesterol from the blood stream and return it to the liver where it is used to produce bile.


Why are vitamins important?

Vitamins are organic substances that are necessary for metabolism or preventing a particular deficiency disease. Because the body cannot make vitamins they must be supplied in the foods we eat. They are critical in building and maintaining body tissues, supporting our immune system so we can fight disease ensuring healthy vision. They help our bodies break down and use the energy found in carbs, proteins and lipids. They are critical during rapid growth pregnancy laceration and healing. Evidence supports the claim that some can prevent chronic illness. 


What are carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for the body. 


What are complete proteins?

Complete proteins contain all the essential amino acids necessary for protein synthesis. 

They usually come from animal sources.


What are phospholipids?

Soluble in water. They are the key component of lipoproteins, which consist of phospholipids and a protein. Major transport vehicles for lipids in the bloodstream. 


Types of fats?

Unsaturated- not completely filled with all the hydrogen it can hold. It is lighter and less dense. Primarily made up on unsaturated fatty acids

Saturated- every carbon atom is fully bound to hydrogen. The molecules pack tightly together at room temperature and are dense, solid and heavy. Made up of mostly animal fats. 

Trans fatty acids- saturated fats created when food manufacturers add hero gen to polyunsaturated plant oils such as corn oil to break down the double carbon bonds and straighten out the molecules. They are found in many margarines and other processed foods containing hydrogenated vegetable oils. 


Water soluble vitamins consist of?

Vitamin C & B complex.


The types of carbohydrates consist of...

Simple carbs- commonly called sugars. 

Monosaccharides- simple sugars that consist of a single unit 

Dissacharhides- molecules made up of two saccarides

Complex carbs- consist of long chains of saccarhides, called polysaccharides.

 Dietary fibers- polysaccharides, indigestible fibrous skeleton of plant foods. 


What are incomplete proteins?

Incomplete proteins (nuts grains) do not provide all of the essential amino acids. However by combining two incomplete proteins a complete protein can be made.


What are sterols?

Sterols are lipids but they are not made up of fatty acids. They are made of carbon and hydrogen. The most important sterol is cholesterol.


Types of essential and nonessential fatty acids?

Linoleic acid (omega 6) and alpha Linolenic acid (omega 3) help protect against heart disease. 

Omega 6 are found in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds.

Omega 3 are found in fatty fish (tuna shellfish) twice a week.


What are minerals? 

Inorganic elements found in nature. Occur in foods naturally or as additives as well as in supplements. 
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