Explain False Memory

A false memory is a recollection that seems real in our mind but is fabricated in part or whole


Explain how repeated measures design was used in the study

For the  comparison of line-up type i.e. target present vs target absent and the familiarity of the target cartoons vs humans 


Explain why a Free recall was used in the experiment?

all participants were asked an open-ended question to describe everything they could remember about each video clip. The researchers recorded each child participant’s responses, while the adult participants recorded their own responses. This task was used as a brief filler between exposure of the video and presentation of the lineup. Approximately 2 minutes lapsed between each video exposure and lineup presentation.

Outline the 2 key differences to be interpreted from the experiment

data were divided into target-present versus target-absent lineups given the identification decision differs for each. Specifically, correct identifications (i.e., selecting a face) versus correct rejections (i.e., not selecting a face) may be driven by different processes.  


what is a False Positive Response

 mistakenly picking out someone or identifying them from a target-absent line-up task


why was a familiar ( Low cognitive demand) line-up task provided to both the groups?

The researcher wanted to minimize any cognitive effect on the decision making hence they did this by comparing identification and rejection of a cartoon character as they are familiar and it is a cognitive easy task hence children could identify them with 100% accuracy as adults


How were the cartoon foils selected for the Line-up task?

foils were selected from a vast number of readily available cartoon images on the internet. The foil photographs were selected based on similar appearance to the intended target. Similarity was measured in terms of general facial structure, hair length, and colour.


How was the ethical issue Right to withdraw used in the experiment?

During the introduction and invitation to participate, the researchers made it clear to the children that they could change their minds at any time and not get into trouble. In order to create a level of comfort with the children, the researchers worked with the children to make some crafts prior to engaging the children in the experimental task


Highlight different social effects on child witnesses

1) Social pressure- mere presentation of a lineup may suggest to the child that the presenter expects the child to make a choice 

2) Children view adults as Authority figures hence more likely to obey or comply

3) Fear getting into trouble and afraid of consequences if they do not choose somebody as this behvaior may suggest non-compliance


Explain how IV was operationalized in the experiment

1) The age group- Young children (4-7 years)

Adults- (17-30 years)

2) Line-up type identification(Target-present) and rejection (targer-absent)

3) level of cognitive demand (familiarity of target)


How was standadization carried out in this experiment?

In both the line-up task all photos were in black and white as bright colors might act as confounding variable and add a distraction. Also, black and white images reduced the possibility that the bright and vibrant colours would be the focus of recognition rather than the identity of the target. Target-present lineups contained the target and three foils. Target-absent lineups contained four foils for both the groups


explain ecological validity as a pointer in the following study

As it was a lab study the line-up was not real , hence individual differences and the emotional experience between adults and children could have influenced the decision making in the target absent condition rather than specifically the social effect of the task


Outline 4 Hypothesis of the experiment

1) Children will be as good as adults at identifying cartoon faces in a target present line-up

2) Children will be worse than adults at identifying human faces in a target present line-up

3) Children will be worse than adults at rejecting cartoon faces in a target-absent line-up

4) Children will be worse than adults at rejecting human  faces in a target-absent line-up


explain the procedure for the video and the target absent line-up task

One female and one male cartoon character were used as the targets. 

Six-second clips of each of the following were used; Dora the Explorer talking to the audience and Go Diego Go putting on a pair of gloves for safety. 

Each video provided a 2- to 3-second close-up of the target character’s face and involved no other characters. The video clips were in colour. The sound on the videos was muted as there was no sound with the human face videos.

For each target, a lineup was presented. A simultaneous procedure was used to present the lineup.

In the target-absent condition, the target was replaced with a similar foil. The target and target replacement was placed in the same position.

 Each target’s lineup position was randomized. Each lineup also included a silhouette to represent the possibility of an absent target


How was informed consent obtained from the parents/guardians for child participants?

Demographic and Cartoon Watching Form Each participant (for child participants this form was provided to the parent/guardian) was provided with a response form for demographics and to assess level of familiarity with the target cartoons used in this study. Eight questions were asked requesting the participant’s age, gender, primary language, ethnicity, number of children in the household and their ages, amount of time spent watching cartoons per week, and how much time spent watching the two target cartoons used in this study  


explain how the findings and results of this experiment coud be applied and improved in real life?

The result demonstrated children would not be as reliable eye witnesses as adults in everyday life more so in terms of the target abent line-up. This is due to the social effect which reduces the accuracy. Hence line-up administration, instruction and the outfit worn by the experimenter could reduce the social pressure