Traditional grammar
Functional grammar
Contemporary linguistics

What is grammar?

the study of the classes of words, their inflections, and their functions and relations in the sentence


What does the term 'grammaring' imply?

to think about grammar as a skill rather than as an area of knowledge; this underscores the importance of students’ developing an ability to do something, not simply storing knowledge about the language or its use


What is language?

Language is an instrument of social interaction used to establish communicative relations.


What is competence and performance?

Competence: Knowledge required for some activity.

Performance: The actual implementation of that knowledge in the activity


What does the term 'form' refer to?

Form consists of the visible or audible units: sounds and written symbols


What does the author think of the common grammar myth that 'In grammar there is always one right answer'?

it depends on the intended meaning


What does verbal interaction consist of?

Verbal interaction is governed both by form and pragmatic rules


What is descriptive grammar?

it describes how a language is actually used

What does 'meaning' refer to?

Meaning refers to the essential dennotation of a decontextualized form; what we would find on a dictionary


What does the author think of the common grammar myth 'Grammar is boring'?

the teaching practice might be boring... Grammar is not.


Verbal interaction involves sharing non-shared information... What is this about?

The intention of the speaker must be communicated by means of the syntax and morphology choices they make (structures according to the conventions).


What is pragmatics about?

language in use and the contexts in which it is used


What is language?

Language is an abstract formal object.


What does 'use' refer to in the pie chart?

It refers to the meaning not encoded in language, but What people mean by the language they use


What is the linguistic capacity?

linguistic capacity comprises the ability to construe and interpret linguistic expressions and to use those expressions in appropriate and effective ways according to the conventions prevailing in a linguistic community

Explain two of the four processing strategies that approximate the communcative competence of NLUs.

Linguistic capacity: NLU correctly produces and interprets lingusitic expressions or great complexity and variety in a great number of different communicative situations.

Epistemic and logical capacity: NLU can derive knowledge and rules from linguistic expressions, file it, retrieve it and utilize it in interpreting further linguistic expressions.

Perceptual capacity: NLU perceives their environment, derives knowledge from their perceptions, and uses it to produce and interpret linguistic expressions.

Social capacity: NLU knows what to say, and how to say it to acheive particular communicative goals

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