Human Body Systems
Lab Concepts
the energy in most ecosystems comes directly from the _____. since it is not living, the sun is called an ________ factor.
sun :) / abiotic
what are the chromosomes in a human female? a human male? and how many chromosomes do we have in our body cells?
XX = female XY = male 46 chromosomes (23 from sperm, 23 from egg)
_________ __________ is the result of overproduction of offspring having variations, these variations struggling for survival, and the subsequent survival and increased reproduction of those best adapted to a particular environment.
What is natural selection
What is the only life function that is not necessary for the survival of an individual, but is necessary for the survival of the species
________- __________ is a procedure used to separate substances in a mixture. In the Living Environment/Biology lab, this mixture is usually a solution of liquid plant pigments containing different kinds of chlorophylls and other colored photosynthetic pigments
paper chromotography
what are the levels of ecological organization from simplest to most complex?
population (one species), community (many species), ecosystem (species and their environment), biosphere (all areas of earth where life can exist)
hemophelia is a _____ linked disease because it is on the X chromosome. if a person has the gene but does not show symptoms, they are called a _______.
sex-linked / carrier
An ___________ is a variation which assists an organism or species in its survival which include include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment.
A paramecium absorbs materials from its environment and circulates these materials throughout its' cytoplasm. Which life function is described by these activities?
___________ ___________ is a procedure used to separate charged molecules, such as DNA, of different sizes by passing them through a gel in an electrical field. The gel serves to act as a support for the separation of the molecules of different sizes. What is something this can be used for?
What is gel electrophoresis - to show a common ancestor, for paternity testing, crime scene
if an entire forest burns down, eventually over a long period of time it will grow back and be stable through a process called:
ecological succession
In recent years new varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to produce new characteristics. This technology is known as _____________ or ____________ DNA technology.
genetic engineering / recombinant
The ________ of organisms within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of the species will survive under changed environmental conditions
variation / diversity
Congratulations - you were once a fertilized egg aka a ______. Your cells all developed to do their own special jobs, which is known as _____________.
zygote / differentiation
Think back to the diffusion lab: - Why didn't the starch diffuse out - how did we test it? - What would happen to an onion cell placed in salt water?
- starch was too large of a molecule to get through the membrane - we tested it with iodine (went from amber to blue black) - the cell would shrink up
The number of organisms any environment can support is called its _________ __________ which is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle
carrying capacity
A human cell contains many thousands of different genes coding for many different traits. Changes in the sequence of the DNA molecule and therefore the gene are called _________.
Two nucleotide sequences found in two different species are almost exactly the same. This suggests that these species:
may have evolved from a common ancestor
The hormone ________ that regulates blood sugar is synthesized in the ________.
insulin / pancreas
The cactus finch eats mainly plant food, and the small tree finch eats mainly animal food - how do they exist on the same island?
They are in different niches so they don't compete for food.
Close living associations are called symbiotic relationships. What are the 3 main symbiotic relationships, and give examples of each! Hint: [ :) :) / :) :( / :) :\ ]
parasitism commensalism mutualism
The code of DNA directs the synthesis of ____, which in turn directs the making of _______ on the __________.
RNA / Proteins / Ribosomes
The theory that evolutionary change is slow and continuous is known as
What is gradualism (Darwin!)
_________ describes the ability of an organism to resist foreign organisms or invaders which enter its body. An ___________ is any foreign substance which invades the body of an organism, while a ________ is a living antigen (such as viruses or bacteria) which invade an organism
immunity / antigen / pathogen
Why is it important to protect biodiversity?
Because my teacher said so :)