An increase in the volume of air in a container filled with air would have what effect upon the pressure inside the container?
Decrease in pressure
What causes the calcium ion channels to open?
The rise in voltage during the action potential (will accept action potential reaching near the end of the neuron)
All of the following are true about inhalation except
(a)the rib cage is elevated
(b)the diaphragm is relaxed
(c)the volume of the thoracic cavity has increased
(d)intrapulmonary pressure has decreased
What happens when the calcium channels open and why?
Calcium ions rush inside of the neuron because there are more calcium ions outside than on the inside.
Why is it advantageous for the capillaries and alveoli to be nearby each other?
It supports quicker diffusion of gases
Why is it necessary to increase the volume of the lung cavity during inhalation?
To reduce the pressure of oxygen gas in order to increase the pressure gradient of oxygen
What causes the calcium ion channels to close?
The drop in voltage in the later stage of the action potential
Why (apart from being close to capillaries) do the alveoli support gas exchange?
Answer: Since the alveoli is only 1 cell thick, the surface area to volume ratio is high
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas which can result in the formation of acid rain. Why is it important for the carbon dioxide to be exhaled?
The body needs to be maintained close to a pH of 7. If the carbon dioxide is not removed regularly, the pH will slip below the neutral range.
How is the calcium ion concentration gradient returned to normal and what kind of transport is this and why?
A calcium ion pump is used to pump calcium ions back outside. This is an example of active transport because you are going against the concentration gradient.
Hint: There are more chloride (Cl-) ions outside of the cell than inside of a cell.
Why is it important to control the surface tension on the surface of the alveoli?
The alveoli need to be flexible because of the pressure changes which occur during breathing. If the surface tension is too high, then the flexibility decreases.
Bromothymol blue is an indicator which changes in color when the pH goes below 7 or above 7. Bromothymol blue turns yellow in acidic solution and blue in basic solution. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid. Why can bromothymol blue be useful to monitor breathing?
During the exhalation phase, the alveoli become richer in carbon dioxide. The bromothymol blue would turn yellow if applied to the alveoli during this phase.
Why do vesicles have both a polar and a nonpolar classification?
Vesicles hold water inside which is compatible with the neurotransmitters. The cell membrane is both polar and nonpolar and the vesicle interacts with the cell membrane.
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