Functions
Breathing
Neurotransmitter release
Ion Channels

100

The main function of the Respiratory system is to supply what to the blood?
oxygen

100

An increase in the volume of air in a container filled with air would have what effect upon the pressure inside the container? 

Decrease in pressure

100

What causes the calcium ion channels to open? 

The rise in voltage during the action potential (will accept action potential reaching near the end of the neuron)

100

Which two voltage gated channels can the neurotransmitter bind to?
A potassium ion channel or a sodium ion channel

200

What are the six major structures of the Respiratory System?
Nose,Pharynx (Throat),Trachea,Bronchi,Lungs,diaphragm

200

All of the following are true about inhalation except 

(a)the rib cage is elevated

(b)the diaphragm is relaxed

(c)the volume of the thoracic cavity has increased

(d)intrapulmonary pressure has decreased


Choice b

200

What happens when the calcium channels open and why? 

Calcium ions rush inside of the neuron because there are more calcium ions outside than on the inside.

200

Which channel does an inhibitory neurotransmitter bind to and why?
A potassium ion channel because when the inhibitory neurotransmitter binds to a potassium ion channel, the potassium ion channel opens and potassium ion channels leave the cell, causing a drop in voltage. This discourages the action potential.

300

Why is it advantageous for the capillaries and alveoli to be nearby each other?

It supports quicker diffusion of gases

300

Why is it necessary to increase the volume of the lung cavity during inhalation?

To reduce the pressure of oxygen gas in order to increase the pressure gradient of oxygen

300

What causes the calcium ion channels to close? 

The drop in voltage in the later stage of the action potential

300

Explain how it is still possible to have an action potential triggered even if both the potassium and sodium ion channels are bound to neurotransmitters. 
If more sodium ion channels are bound to excitatory neurotransmitters than potassium ion channels are bound to inhibitory neurotransmitters, the overall effect is still a rise in voltage, enough to trigger and action potential.

400

Why (apart from being close to capillaries) do the alveoli support gas exchange?

Answer: Since the alveoli is only 1 cell thick, the surface area to volume ratio is high


400

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas which can result in the formation of acid rain. Why is it important for the carbon dioxide to be exhaled? 

The body needs to be maintained close to a pH of 7. If the carbon dioxide is not removed regularly, the pH will slip below the neutral range. 

400

How is the calcium ion concentration gradient returned to normal and what kind of transport is this and why? 

A calcium ion pump is used to pump calcium ions back outside. This is an example of active transport because you are going against the concentration gradient.

400

If the neurotransmitter GABA binds to a chloride channel, would it be classified as an excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter and why?


Hint: There are more chloride (Cl-) ions outside of the cell than inside of a cell.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter because if the chloride channel opens (because GABA binds to the channel), chloride ions will flow inside of the cell to follow the concentration gradient. This results in a voltage drop, which inhibits an action potential.

500

Why is it important to control the surface tension on the surface of the alveoli? 

The alveoli need to be flexible because of the pressure changes which occur during breathing. If the surface tension is too high, then the flexibility decreases.

500

Bromothymol blue is an indicator which changes in color when the pH goes below 7 or above 7. Bromothymol blue turns yellow in acidic solution and blue in basic solution. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid. Why can bromothymol blue be useful to monitor breathing?

During the exhalation phase, the alveoli become richer in carbon dioxide. The bromothymol blue would turn yellow if applied to the alveoli during this phase. 

500

Why do vesicles have both a polar and a nonpolar classification?

Vesicles hold water inside which is compatible with the neurotransmitters. The cell membrane is both polar and nonpolar and the vesicle interacts with the cell membrane. 

500

Why can some neurotransmitters be both inhibitory and excitatory?
A given neurotransmitter can bind to more than one type of receptor or channel. The type of channel or receptor's shape can vary in different cells. Depending on which receptor or channel in different cells the neurotransmitter binds to, the result could either be the start of an action potential or the prevention of an action potential.