More Sympathetic
Less Sympathetic
MISC.
More Parasympathetic
Less Parasympathetic

100

Stimulating the sympathetic system to the heart does what?
What is increasing heart rate and heart contractile force. (increases cardiac output from the heart).

100

Medications that block the sympathetic system can be identified by the spelling of their generic names, as they end in what letters?
What is "olol".

100

What drugs are given to patients with prostate problems? (These drugs also lower blood pressure.) (SEE CHAPTER 15)
What are alpha blocker medications. Blocking alpha receptors causes vasodilation, and in the bladder/urethra/prostate area these drugs relax prostate tissue and vessels so that the client can get urine through the urethra. (The prostate gland surrounds the urethra. Enlarged prostates prevent the client from emptying the bladder properly leading to frequent urination.

100

The parasympathetic system is also known as the ? system (hint the sympathetic system is also known as the adrenergic system due to the neurotransmitter used)
What is the cholinergic system (called this because of the neurotransmitter used).

100

In what situations would we wish to reduce parasympathetic stimulation? (When do we use parasympathetic - cholinergic - blocker meds).
What is before surgery to reduce secretion production and to reduce GI motility.

200

Where are beta receptors located in the body?
What are the heart and lungs (other places too but at least know the heart and lungs!!!)

200

What happens in the body when a beta blocker medication is given?
What is blocking a beta receptor in the: heart = slower heart rate and less force lungs= lung airways (bronchioles) go back to normal size

200

Anticholinergics will block this system.
What is the parasympathetic system.

200

What is the neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?
What is acetylcholine (Ach).

200

What do anticholinergics do to the bladder?
What are reduce & prevent bladder spasms. When the bladder spasms, you WILL urinate or certainly feel a huge sudden need to urinate. Cholinergic blocker drugs relax the bladder so that it WILL hold urine rather than pushing it out. Unfortunately, while helping prevent bladder spasms, these drugs also block the rest of the parasympathetic system which means you'll have a very dry mouth, and constipation.

300

What happens in the lungs when beta receptors are stimulated?
What is bronchodilation? (fight or flight reaction means we need MORE AIR and thus more open airways = dilation of airways). Note we dilate the cirvix if we want that baby to be delivered. We dilate lungs so that we can deliver more air to the lungs. Dilate = delivery (more delivery)

300

Why would we give a beta blocker medication?
What is to treat heart patients who need a slower more relaxed heart beat to help their hearts fill more fully between heart beats. People who have had heart attacks or who are at risk for having heart attackes are commonly put on beta blockers. Beta receptors are also found in the kidney. The kidney produces a chemical that raises blood pressure. Thus we give hypertensive patients beta blockers to help reduce their blood pressure.

300

Cholinergic stimulant drugs stimulate the parasympathetic system by releasing acetylcholine. What disease will this help to treat (that is related to acetylchoine malfunction)?
What is Myasthenia Gravis? In myasthenia there is a problem with acetylcholine and it's receptors in muscle tissue. Stimulating the parasympathic system releases more acetycholine and helps them to live a more active life.

300

What happens when the parasympathetic system is activated?
What is increased digestion - increased motility of intestines and increased secretions throughout the digestive tract. it also causes a modest reduction of heart rate- when SLEEPING mainly. (THIS IS NOT the same effect as sympathetic blocking with beta blockers which will also lower exercise heart rate as well as resting heart rate).

300

If you block the parasympathetic system, then what happens to heart rate?
What is an increase in heart rate.

400

What do adrenergic stimulant drugs do?
What is increase heart rate, and blood pressure via alpha and beta receptors located in heart and vessels. Also bronchial dilation via beta receptors in lungs.

400

What happens if an alpha receptor blocker is given (who is likely to get this drug?)
What is lower blood pressure. Mainly alpha receptors are located in blood vessels. Block these receptors prevents epinephrine (adrenalin) from activating these receptors in blood vessels. Therefore the vessel will dilate and blood pressure will go down. The most common patients who get these are older men with prostatic hypertrophy (enlarged prostate) because alpha blockers relax the urethra and prostate tissue and this helps these patients to empty their bladders more fully. (Essential if the man would like to not have to get up in the middle of every night to go to the bathroom)...

400

What do beta blocker medications do to blood pressure?
What is reduces blood pressure (less heart rate and less contraction of the heart will reduce blood pressure).

400

Which drugs are used to treat glaucoma, cholinergic stimulants or cholinergic blockers?
What are cholinergic stimulants. These drugs help reduce eye pressure to help the glaucoma patient from going blind.

400

500

What are the names of the sympathetic neurotransmitters?
What is epinephrine (identical to adrenalin - one's from Greek one's from Latin), norepinephrine (virtually the same thing as epinephrine). Epinephrine/norepinephrine attach to alpha and beta receptors at various points around the body to get the body ready for any emergency "fight/flight/finals/fun"...

500

What is the one drug that causes SIGNIFICANT drop in heart rate.
What are beta blockers. Beta blockers are the NUMBER one drug used to LOWER heart rate. None other has this major of an effect on Heart rate. ALL patients taking the common beta blocker medications will experience a significant reduction in both resting and exercise heart rate.

500

Which two drug groups slow heart rate? beta adrenergic stimulants, beta adrenergic blockers, cholinergic stimulants, cholinergic blockers
What are beta blockers and cholinergic stimulants. Beta blockers block epinephrine/adrenalin from going to the heart thereby reducing heart rate. Cholinergic stimulants are our "rest" and digest drugs. They turn ON our parasympathetic system. Parasympathetic to the heart slows it down. Of these two groups BETA BLOCKERS cause the MOST heart rate reduction, because they block it at rest AND with exercise. Parasympathetic system is NOT on during exercise so these drugs would mainly only have an effect when you are resting or asleep.

500

Which drugs are used in the eye doctors office to dilate your eyes for the examination?
What are "mydriatics" - cholinergic BLOCKER medications that dilate the eyes. Remember that cholinergic drugs constrict eyes, so cholinergic blockers would dilate eyes (much like sympathetic stimulation does - but we do NOT put epinephrine into the eye.)

500

Which of the cholinergic type drugs are considered anti-spasmotics (stimulants or blockers).
What is ACH blockers (anticholinergic)