Vygotsky
Sternberg
Montessori
Gardner
Chomsky
100

What is Vygotsky most famously known for?

His Cognitive Development Theory

100

What are the three forms of intelligence according to Sternberg?

Analytical, creative, practical

100

What is the main idea of the Montessori method?

Children absorb knowledge from their surroundings, kids teach themselves, and children will learn most effectively in an environment catered towards them, and independent learning

100

What was Gardner’s view on the conventional concept of intelligence?

He believed that the general perception was too narrow and restrictive

100

Chomsky’s hierarchy theory is an in-depth understanding and analysis mainly of what subject?

Linguistics, with ties to various other subjects (namely social science in this case)

200

For what main reason did Vygotsky oppose widely accepted theories during his time?

Vygotsky believed that development is a result of learning rather than learning being a result of development which was widely accepted at the time

200

Through which theory was a test created in order to test the various intelligence fields of individuals?

Triarchic Theory

200

Why are Montessori teaching methods different from traditional methods?

Students are allowed to learn at their own pace, time limits or restrictions are shunned, largely putting a focus on hands-on learning, and students learn to thrive independently

200

What is the main concept of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences?

The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that people are not born with all of the intelligence they have or gain over the years

200

Chomsky’s work stemmed from which movement that took place throughout the 1950s and 1960s?

The Cognitive Revolution

300

In the context of nurture vs. nature, which did Vygotsky believe was more important?

Nature over nurture

300

What four styles were proposed under Sternberg's theory of cognitive styles?

hierarchical, monarchic, anarchic, and oligarchic

300

The Montessori method largely focuses on which fields of development?

Emotional, social, physical, intellectual

300

Which proposed intelligence deals with physical abilities, and the ability of an individual to deal with objects?

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

300

What is the main idea behind Chomsky’s theory of universal grammar?

When raised in a normal environment (ex. with other humans/social environment), humans possess the ability to communicate and form language, with common linguistic patterns

400

What did Vygotsky emphasize within instructor roles?

Tools, supervision, scaffolding, aid, and explanation

400

Which form of intelligence focuses on the implementation of a hands-on style in practice?

Practical intelligence

400

In what way is the Montessori method most revolutionary as a whole?

The Montessori method was most revolutionary in promoting and providing self-discipline based education

400

What is the ninth theoretical intelligence that Gardner proposed after creating his theory of multiple intelligences?

Existential intelligence

400

Which proposed intelligence deals with the ability to think abstractly and in multiple dimensions?

Spatial intelligence

500

What is the main idea of Vygotsky’s “Zone of Proximal Development”

Stating what a student/learner is able to do, what they are capable of doing with further training or guidance, and what they are unable to do

500

How did Sternberg define "intelligence" as a whole?

Defined as the "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection, and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one's life"

500

For what reasons is the Montessori method often criticized?

Lack of social interaction/development, peer relations discouraged, a requirement of self-motivational skills, and that different educational styles work better for different children

500

Which intelligences were proposed under Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences?

Spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, linguistic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic

500

What 4 categories does Chomsky break grammar down into?

Unrestricted grammar, context sensitive grammar, context free grammar, and regular grammar

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