Definitions Vocabulary Signal Words Passages- Difficult Passages- Easy

100

What is problem and solution?
the author states a problem and lists one or more possible solutions

100

What is compare?
tell how two or more things are alike

100

What is sequence?
first, next, then, before, after, finally, following, dates, and times

100

What is problem and solution?
One problem with every modern Olympics is that is has become very big and expensive to operate. The city or country that hosts the games often loses a lot of money. A stadium, pools, and playing fields must be built for the athletic events and housing is needed for the athletes who come from around the world. And all of these facilities are only used for two weeks! In 1984, Los Angles solved these problems by charging a fee for companies who wanted to be official sponsors of the games. Companies like McDonald’s paid a lot of money to be part of the Olympics. Many buildings that were already being built in Los Angeles were also being used. The Coliseum where the 1932 games were held was used again and many colleges and universities in the area became playing and living areas.

100

What is sequence?
To surprise her mother on her birthday, Samantha got up early and make coffee. First, she filled the pot with water. Then she cleaned and replaced the filter. Next, she got fresh coffee, measured just the right amount, and poured it into the filter. Finally, she pressed the "on" button and within seconds, the aroma of the fresh-brewed coffee filled the house. The MAIN text structure used in this paragraph is . . .

200

What is description?
the author explains a topic, person, place, or thing by listing characteristics, examples, or features

200

What is solution?
a resolution or fix

200

What is compare and contrast?
same as, similar, alike, as well as, also, both, instead of, on the other hand, different from, and as opposed to

200

What is sequence?
The Olympic games began as athletic festivals to honor the Greek gods. The most important festival was held in the valley of Olympia to honor Zeus, the king of the gods. It was the festival that became the Olympic games in 776 B.C. These games were ended in 394 A.D. by the Roman emperor in Greece. No Olympic games were held for more than 1,500 years. Then the modern Olympics began is 1896. Almost 300 male athletes competed in the first modern Olympics. In the games held in 1900, female athletes were allowed to compete. The games have continued every four years since 1896, except during World War II and they will most likely continue for many years to come.

200

What is compare and contrast?
Willow Creek is very different from New York City. There are no tall skyscrapers in Willow Creek. All you can see are fields and sky. Instead of taxicab horns and fire truck sirens, it is so quiet at night that you can hear the crickets chirping. The MAIN text structure used in this paragraph is . . .

300

What is cause and effect?
the author lists one or more causes and the resulting effects

300

What is contrast?
tell how two or more things are different

300

What is problem and solution?
problem is, question is, puzzle is, to solve this, and one answer is

300

What is description?
The Olympic symbol consists of five interlocking rings. The rings represent the five continents- Africa, Asia, North America, Europe, and South America- from which athletes come to compete in the games. The rings are colored black, blue, green, red, and yellow. At least one of those colors is found in the flag of every country sending athletes to compete in the Olympic games.

300

What is description?
The music was blasting so loud, Marco thought his ears would burst. The stage was filled with bright blue laser beams and a shower of yellow and green paper streamers. All around him, the crowd was singing and dancing wildly. The MAIN text structure used in this paragraph is . . .

400

What is compare and contrast?
the author explains how two or more things are alike and how they are different

400

What is cause?
an action or event that makes something else happen

400

What is cause and effect?
so, because, since, therefore, if/then, this led to, as a result, a reason why, may be due to, consequently, for this reason

400

What is compare and contrast?
The modern Olympics are very unlike the ancient Olympic games. Individual events are different. While there was no swimming in the ancient games, for example, there were chariot races. There were no female contestants and all athletes competed in the nude. Of course, the ancient and modern Olympics are also like in many ways. Some events, such as the javelin and the discus throws are the same. Some people say that cheating, professionalism, and nationalism in the modern games are a disgrace to the Olympic tradition. But according to the Greek writers there were many cases of cheating, nationalism, and professionalism in their Olympics, too.

400

What is problem and solution?
Joey lost his science book. He knew he would be in big trouble if he was unable to study for the final. What should he do? He thought for a few worried moments, and then decided to retrace his steps. He remembered putting the book in his backpack that morning. He had taken it out at school when his friend Kim asked to look something up. Now he remembered - Kim still had his book! The MAIN text structure used in this paragraph is . . .

500

What is sequence?
the author lists the items or events in chronological order; how to make or do something

500

What is an effect?
what happens

500

What is description?
for instance, such as, an example, an illustration, characteristics

500

What is cause and effect
There are several reasons why so many people attend the Olympic games or watch them on television. One reason is tradition. The name Olympics and the torch and flame remind people of the ancient games. People can escape the ordinariness of daily life by attending or watching the Olympics. They like to identify with someone else’s individual sacrifice and accomplishment. National pride is another reason, and an athlete’s or a team’s hard earned victory becomes a nation’s victory. There are national medal counts and people keep track of how many medals their country’s athletes have won.

500

What is cause and effect?
Every spring, shortly after the tulips bloom, farmers in Holland go through the tulip fields and cut the blooms off the tulips. This seems strange, because it leaves a field full of green stems. However, it makes the colorful tulip blooms grow back even bigger and stronger later that spring. The MAIN text structure used in this paragraph is . . .

Text Structure

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