Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4

Chess and Castles
This change signaled the begining of the Middle Ages.
What is the collapse of the Roman Empire
A lord granted an estate called a ________to a vassel in exchange for a pledge of loyalty.
What is a fief?
Medieval popes claimed to have authority over all rulers . This was known as_______________.
What is papal supremacy?
This document was often given by the local to state the rights and privleges of a town
What is a charter?
This chess piece resembles part of the battlement wall of a castle.
What is a rook?
The Frankish troops conquered Gaul under his leadership
Who is Clovis
They wandered the countryside often singing about brave deeds of knights
Who are troubadours?
Monks and nuns were required to take vows of obedience, poverty and chastity under these rules named after the founder of these rules
What are Benedictine Rules?
A guild master would have trainees as young as 7 years old known as this
What is an apprentice?
This structure protected the only entryway into a castle.
What is the Gatehouse?
Pope Leo III made Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans after Charlemagne crushed a rebelllion in this city
What is Rome?
A vassel was required to provide military service and remain on the land he was given, even if a new lord took over a manor, under the rules of this agreement
What is a fuedal contract?
To be spiritually saved, Christians believed they must receive the ___________________. These were administired by the parish priests.
What are the sacraments?
After learning a trade , artisans who could earn a salary according to the guild system were known as these.
What is a journeyman?
From this wall, fighters inside the outer wall could shower arrows and hot oil on attackers.
What is the battlement wall?
This structure was designed mainly for the defense of the occupants that might include monarchs, nobles, lords,knights, and peasants
What is a medieval castle?
Because cities were becoming overcrowded, newcomers to a medievil city often settled here
What is outside the city's walls?
The first order of friars was founded by this man
Who is St. Francis of Assisi
This crop was used to restore fertility to the field in the three-field system of rotating crops
What are legumes?
In the game of chess this piece protects the king and queen by being able to move more than one space at a time and able to move in a L shaped pattern.
What is the knight?
The drawbridge was raised to protect inhabitant's from attackers who would have to cross this waterfilled canal that restricted access to a fortress.
What is a moat?
Many young nobles trained for this occupation. In addition to being a mounted warrior, they participated in mock battles called "tournaments" and followed a code of conduct known as "chivalry" .
What is a medieval knight?
The Truce of God required Christian nobles to stop fighting between these days
What are Friday and Sunday?
Agricultural productions improved in Europe because of these.
What are new harnesses and plows?
In the game of chess, just as in the fuedal system, there are many of these pieces who have pledged their loyalty to the king. Their movement is very limited and they are usually the first line of defense against attackers.
What is a pawn(serf or peasant)?