Majors and Minors (and Middles)
Don’t be so contrary!
Share and share alike.
Is that valid? (Part 1)
Is that valid? (Part 2)
100

The term that appears in both premises, but not in the conclusion.

What is the Middle term?

100

Two statements that differ in both quality and quantity.

What are contradictory statements?

100

The SUBJECT term is DISTRIBUTED in these statements.

What are statements whose quantity is universal (A, E)?

100

When the conclusion logically follows from the premises.

What is ‘validity’?

100

The three categories of the rules of validity.

What are Terminological, Quantitative and Qualitative?

200

The term that is the predicate of the conclusion.

What is the Major term?

200

Two statements that are both universals, but differ in quality.

What are contrary statements?

200

The SUBJECT term is UNDISTRIBUTED in these statements.

What are statements whose quantity is particular (I, O)?

200

All plants are living things

All animals are living things

Therefore, all living things are plants or animals

Breaks validity rule #2: The middle term must not occur in the conclusion. (Terminological)

200

All mammals have hair

All horses have manes

Therefore, some mammals have hair

Breaks validity rule #1: There must be three and only three terms. (Terminological)

300

The term that is the subject of the conclusion.

What is the Minor term?

300

Two statements that have the same quality, but differ in quantity.

What are subalterns?

300

The PREDICATE term is DISTRIBUTED in these statements.

What are negative propositions (E, O)?

300

All Challenge 1 students are alive

No porcupines are Challenge 1 students

Therefore, no porcupines are alive

Breaks validity rule #3: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, then it must be distributed in the premises. (Quantitative)

300

All cannibals are bloodthirsty

Some accountants are not bloodthirsty

Therefore, some accountants are cannibals

Breaks validity rule number 7: If either premise is negative, the conclusion must also be negative. (Qualitative)

400

The labels (letters) for Major, Minor and Middle terms when marking up a syllogism.

What are P (Major term), S (Minor term) and M (Middle term)?

400

These statements cannot at the same time be true nor at the same time be false.

What are Contradictory statements? (1st Law of Opposition)
400

The PREDICATE term is UNDISTRIBUTED in these statements.

What are affirmative propositions (A, I)?

400

All Challenge 1 students are alive.

All porcupines are alive.

Therefore, all porcupines are Challenge 1 students.

Breaks validity rule #4: The middle term must be distributed at least once. (Quantitative)

400

No CC students are squids

Some politicians are not squids

Therefore, some politicians are not CC students.

Breaks validity rule #5: No conclusion can follow from two negative premises. (Qualitative)

500
The premise which contains the Major term. The premise which contains the Minor term.

What is the Major premise? What is the Minor premise?

500

Two statements that are both particular and differ in quality.

What are subcontrary statements?

500

In this statement, the subject-term is undistributed, but the predicate-term is distributed.

What is the O statement? (Some S is not P)

500

All men are smelly

All smelly things need deodorant

Therefore, some things that need deodorant are not men

Breaks validity rule #6: If the two premises are affirmative, the conclusion must also be affirmative. (Qualitative)

500

A valid syllogism.

What is…? (write a valid syllogism)

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