Key Terms & Vocabulary
Key Concepts
Fill in the Blank
Program Models

What did WIDA first stand for, then next, and what does it stand for now?

Wisconsin, Delaware, Arkansas.

World-class Instructional Design & Assessment



What is comprehensible input and why is it important?

When educators make content understandable. Even though students may not get all of it, they will understand the message. It's important because we understand language through messages, communication.

In order to find out if a new student might need language services, the family must _________ _____ __ _________ __________ _________.

fill out a home language survey


Name any three characteristics of ELS that they might bring with them to the classroom. Hint: they each have their own story that will impact their learning.

Learners bring with them a diversity of languages, educational backgrounds, expectations of schooling, socioeconomic status, age of arrival to the U.S., personal experiences coming to and living in the U.S., parents' education levels & proficiency in English, exposure to English, proficiency in spoken vs written English, proficiency and literacy in L1, how much schooling students had in home country/what was taught, poverty level, mobility, exposure to trauma, violence, abuse, & other stressors, special education needs, tier 2 or 3 RTI (response to intervention) (LINK) - MTSS – multi-tiered systems of suportt, gifted & talented, reclassified English learner (exited out of ESL program)


What has proven to be one of he better program models for language learning in the U.S.? Why?

Dual language or bilingual programs. Students are able to build a larger linguistic repertoire and make connections between languages with more confidence and ability. Students have a better foundation of language and culture and can build them both together.


What is the difference between ESL and EFL? 

English as a Second Language, taught in countries where English is the dominant language. English as a Foreign Language, taught in countries where English is not the dominant language.


What do BICS and CALP stand for? Which comes first?

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. BICS come first in 1-3 years. CALP comes in 4-7 years.


Translanguaging means drawing from one linguistic ____________.



What is the WIDA ACCESS test for ELLs? What are they tested on?

A yearly assessment of EL's English language proficiency. They are tested on listening, speaking, reading and writing.


Which is the most common type of Dual Language program used in the U.S.? 

A) Two-way or dual immersion - Classes include a roughly balanced mix of  students who enter kindergarten primarily speaking the partner language and students  who enter speaking mainly English. 

B) Foreign language immersion - All students are native English speakers learning a new language. 

C) Heritage language immersion - English is the dominant language for students, but they have a family or community connection to the partner language. 

D) Developmental or maintenance bilingual - Students are ELs with a common native  language (e.g., Spanish). 

A. English-only instruction is the most common overall, but of dual language programs, two-way or dual immersion is the most common.


We know that ENL stands for English as a new language. What does EAL stand for?

English as an additional language.


What is Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development?

a figurative space where children come into the next level of cognitive development through scaffolded interactions with more capable peers and adults. The space between what the learner can do in working independently, and where they can do work with guided assistance.


ELs tend to be over- and underrepresented in ____________.

special education

What does the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) say about children and education?

Children have the right to access to basic education. 


What does SIOP stand for? What does CBI stand for? Which is the better model for teaching K-12 students?

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. Content-based instruction.

SIOP because it merges content and language standards.


What does LTEL stand for, and when might a student be reclassified as an LTEL?

Long-term English Learner. Students who have been enrolled for ~6 years in EL services but have not yet exited or are not close.


What is scaffolding?

Just like construction scaffolding, education scaffolding offers temporary assistance to students as they build their language proficiency and academic skills. Scaffolding follows a gradual release principle, where teachers gradually transfer control of learning from teacher-led instruction to student-centered activities. There is more support in the beginning, then a gradual letting-go so students can work more independently.


_________ & _________ are inextricably linked. You can't have one without the other, as they both inform one another in our use and understanding of them. This is called _________.

Language & culture.



What did the Plyer v Doe court case rule that was beneficial for students? 

It says that non-resident children also have the right to free education. This means that documentation status does not matter.


What are the three main types of instructional services for ELs in the U.S.? Hint: the majority of EL teachers utilize some form of all three in K-12 classrooms, especially at the younger grades.

Push-in, pull-out, co-teaching or collaboration.


What does SLIFE stand for? To whom might this term apply?

Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education. Students who have gone through war or major conflict, refugees or family asylum-seekers.


What is translanguaging? Name one strategy for the classroom that implements translanguaging.

Learners are encouraged to use all of their language resources from their linguistic repertoires in order to fully engage and understand content. Teachers also use multiple languages in the classroom to help students engage.

Pair students with peers who speak the same L1. Have translations of key terms and academic vocabulary. 


The WIDA ELD Standards Framework states that Els communicate for _________ & __________ purposes, as well as communicating information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content areas of __________ _______, _________, _________, and ________ _________.

social & instructional purposes; language arts, math, science, and social studies.


What did the Lau v Nichols court case rule? Why was this important?

Schools must provide appropriate language assistance to students who are not proficient in English. This violates the Civil Rights Act of 1965 which prohibits discrimination based on race or national origin. This includes language status. This was important because it forced schools to support all learners instead of following the "Sink or Swim" ideology.


What are two strategies that SIOP teachers implement in the classroom?

  • Provide rigorous instruction aligned with state content and language standards

  • Make connections between content and students' prior knowledge/experiences

  • Modulate the level of texts being used (make them accessible)

  • Help ELs articulate their understandings of content orally and in writing (output), often using sentence frames and language frame scaffolds
  • Highlight and model procedural knowledge (solving a multi-step math problem; how to research) along with study skills and learning strategies
  • Make comprehensible content through using visuals, modeling, demonstrations, graphic organizers, vocab previews, adapted texts, cooperative learning, peer tutoring, and native language support