Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Chapter 24
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
100

True/False: Traits are favored depending on environmental conditions


True
100

True/False: Much phenotypic variation is due to genetic variation in a population

True

100

True/False: There must be gene flow for speciation to occur


False, no gene flow

100

Sedimentary rocks are deposited into layers called ______ - richest source of fossils


Strata

100

____________ is a unit at a particular level.

Taxon

200

_____________ is the process by which humans choose individual organisms with certain phenotypic trait values for breeding.

Artificial selection

200

____________ is the ultimate source of new alleles.


Mutation

200

A ____________ is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring

Species

200

The fossil record is biased in favor of species that:

Existed for a (short/long) time

Were (few/abundant) and widespread

Had (hard/soft) parts that could fossilize

Long, abundant, hard

200

___________ is naming and classifying organisms, while __________ is the evolutionary history of a species.

Taxonomy, Phylogeny

300

Similar structures due to common ancestry but may have different function are called ___________

Anatomical homologies/homology
300

Explain why mutation rates are fast in prokaryotes and viruses.

Mutation Rates are low in all organisms


Consider generation time:

FAST in prokaryotes & viruses

SLOW in plants and animals

300

Habitat differention is a mechanism for __________ speciation.

sympatric

300

What are stromatolites?

The oldest known fossils are stromatolites, rock-like structures composed of many layers of bacteria and sediment; date back 3.5 billion years ago

300

Name the three domains.

Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea

400

Explain what an endemic species is.

Species found only in one certain place.

These island species are closely related to species on the mainland, where colonizers must have come from

Once islands were colonized, species diverged into endemics seen today


400

Name and explain the three mechanisms contributing to shuffling.


Crossing over: homologous chromosomes trading segments

Independent assortment: random assignment of parent chromosomes to gamete

Fertilization: random gamete combinations

400

What is speciation? Name and explain the two types.

When one species splits into two or more species and  generates biodiversity.

ALLOPATRIC: geographic separation (more common)

SYMPATRIC: no geographic separation

400

What was likely the initial source of oxygen in our ecosystem?

aquatic photosynthetic bacteria

400
Name the five Kingdoms.
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
500

What were Darwin's two inferences?

Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than others.

This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in a population over generations.


500

Name the five causes/mechanisms of evolution.

  -Natural selection

  -Genetic drift

  -Migration

  -Non-random mating

  -Mutation

500

Name the seven reproductive barriers. Which ones are pre/postzygotic?

Prezygotic:

 Spatial

 Temporal

 Behavioral

 Mechanical

 Gametic

Postzygotic:

 Hybrid Viability

 Hybrid Fertility

 Hybrid Breakdown

500

Explain the theory of endosymbiosis.

The hypothesis of endosymbiosis proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells

The endosymbiotic theory posits that some eukaryotic cell organelles, such as mitochondria and plastids, evolved from free-living prokaryotes. Available data indicate that the mitochondrial endosymbiosis initiated the evolution of the eukaryotic cell

500

EASY 500: Which domain do humans belong to?

Eukarya

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